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Table 3 Analysis of covariance of HRQoL indices according to type of exercise

From: Association between type of exercise and health-related quality of life in adults without activity limitations: a nationwide cross-sectional study

  EQ-5D index   EQ-VAS  
Adjusted Mean ± SE P Adjusted Mean ± SE P
Model 1
 W + F + R 0.966 ± 0.003 < 0.001 78.096 ± 0.489 < 0.001
 F + R 0.970 ± 0.003   77.195 ± 0.497  
 W + R 0.961 ± 0.005   75.266 ± 1.405  
 W + F 0.968 ± 0.003   76.541 ± 0.447  
 R 0.952 ± 0.005 F + R   75.770 ± 1.273  
 F 0.962 ± 0.003 F + R   75.581 ± 0.385 W + F + R  
 W 0.961 ± 0.003 W + F, F + R   74.490 ± 0.431 W + F, F + R, W + F + R  
 Non 0.956 ± 0.002 W + F, F + R, W + F + R,   73.070 ± 0.338 F, W + F, F + R, W + F + R  
Model 2
 W + F + R 0.954 ± 0.003 < 0.001 77.188 ± 0.582 < 0.001
 F + R 0.955 ± 0.003   75.964 ± 0.566  
 W + R 0.955 ± 0.006   75.142 ± 1.417  
 W + F 0.956 ± 0.003   75.673 ± 0.524  
 R 0.944 ± 0.005   75.269 ± 1.272  
 F 0.949 ± 0.003   74.362 ± 0.476 W + F + R  
 W 0.952 ± 0.003   73.899 ± 0.522 F + R, W + F + R  
 Non 0.945 ± 0.002 W, W + F, F + R, W + F + R   72.151 ± 0.428 W, F, W + F, F + R, W + F + R  
Model 3
 W + F + R 0.876 ± 0.013 < 0.001 67.110 ± 1.585 < 0.001
 F + R 0.877 ± 0.013   65.811 ± 1.565  
 W + R 0.878 ± 0.014   64.911 ± 2.113  
 W + F 0.878 ± 0.013   65.676 ± 1.491  
 R 0.868 ± 0.014   65.523 ± 1.957  
 F 0.872 ± 0.013   64.427 ± 1.530 W + F + R  
 W 0.875 ± 0.013   64.064 ± 1.549 W + F + R  
 Non 0.869 ± 0.013 W, W + F, F + R, W + F + R   62.396 ± 1.530 W, F, W + F, F + R, W + F + R  
  1. Abbreviations: HRQoL health-related quality of life, EQ-5D EuroQol 5-dimension, EQ-VAS EuroQol visual analogue scale, Non non-exerciser, W walking, F flexibility, R resistance, SE standard error,
  2. P-values were obtained by ANCOVA
  3. Superscripts indicate statistically different groups (p < 0.05) with the corresponding type of exercise by Tukey’s test for post hoc analysis
  4. Model 1 was adjusted for age and sex
  5. Model 2 was adjusted for model 1 plus household income, education level, marital status, and area of residence
  6. Model 3 was adjusted for model 2 plus smoking status, alcohol drinking, activity of daily living, body mass index, and past medical history