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Table 4 Action plans of the 5 schools

From: Decreasing employees’ work stress by a participatory, organizational level work stress prevention approach: a multiple-case study in primary education

 School ASchool BSchool CSchool DSchool E
Causes of work stress
High job demandsX  XX
High administrative loadXXXXX
High time pressureXXXXX
Work home interference X   
Unwanted behavior from external persons X X 
High burden of non teaching tasks XXXX
Lack of support in non teaching tasks  X X
Lack of support in administrative tasksXX X 
Level differences of students X   
Combination groups (students from two different school years combined in one group)  X  
Inefficient meetingsX   X
Difficult student population   X 
Lack of management support    X
Working overtime    X
Categories of measures
Year Planning/ group plans/ work tasksYear planning:
Making framework for year planning
Describing year tasks for each group
Yearly evaluation and update of year planning
Work tasks:
Make list of current assignments, evaluate and update list
Feedback training for teachers
New colleagues are assigned to a mentor (the mentor receives time for mentor tasks)
Teachers from year groups make a list of all assignments, log in codes etc
Year planning:
Make a plan to reduce peak load
Keep space in year planning to deal with peak load
Cancel one meeting with parents
Individual meetings between teachers and direction to discuss year planning
Year planning:
Agreements with team about deadline of year planning, making adjustments throughout the year, be critical about what to include in year planning, arrange day for part-timers
Group plans:
Make, evaluate and adjust year plans, make sure teachers know how to use them
Work tasks:
Prioritizing work tasks and reduce unnecessary work tasks
Divide work tasks based on teachers’ skills and preferences
Make proportionate distribution of work tasks
Keep space for unforeseen tasks
Log all agreements in document
Year planning:
Compare year planning of different school years and align them
Year planning:
Making format for year planning per group
Uniformity in conducting year planning
Evaluation and update format
Group plans:
4 moments per year for conducting and evaluating group plans
Administrative tasksAdministrative tasks
Agreements on checking students work
Investigating possibilities for digital tests to reduce task of checking students work
Meetings with teachers to reduce double administration
Improving data storage
Make overview of administrators
Administrative tasks
Evaluate and improve report form on student development (only reporting the necessary)
Make appointments about informing colleagues that were absent at meeting
Make format for scenario and adjust existing scenario’s based on new format and collect scenario’s
Administrative tasks:
Make, evaluate and bundle agreements about how to work with Parnassys (digital report system)
Make agreements on checking students work and discuss with teachers
Outsource administrative tasks to administration officer
Administrative tasks:
Adjusting group overview (containing only information that is not logged elsewhere)
Change group plans, students are monitored in a different way
Reducing 3 documents on group plan ‘behaviour’ into 1.
Reducing checking students work
Making clear the administrative tasks per function
Administrative tasks:
Teachers plan 1 h per week to work on group plans
ICTImprovements in ICT:
Letter to the direction
Meeting with ICT professional
Making and implementing project plan to solve ICT issues
Study days/ meetingsAlternative program study days:
Explanation of the purpose of each educational activity
Evaluation of study days and improving program based on evaluation
Evaluation of other educational activities
Discussion about planning parents meetings (afternoon of evening)
Effective meetings:
Make agreements about effective meetings
Effective meetings:
Make agreements on number of targets, number of meetings, content of meetings, involve teachers in meetings, making meetings more motivative
 Alternative program study days:
Study days will have practical and substantive component
At least 45 min are available for practical issues
Effective meetings:
Conduct action list and use it at team meetings
Team meetings will have practical component
Education will be prepared in unit meeting that is already planned
Fit between education and student population Dealing with level differences of students:
Continuing existing program
Execute and evaluate pilot ‘calculation’
Adjusting education to student population:
Long-term program (more practical classes, more continuency regarding substitution, etc)
Adjusting education to student population:
Improving tailoring to students needs
Plan energizers in between lessons to motivate children.
Unwanted behavior/ parents involvementMeasures for unwanted behavior from parents:
Raising awareness (information in school guide, newsletter and incidental personal talks)
Conducting protocol for unwanted behavior and discuss it in meeting with teachers
Preparing hand-out with behavioural rules for teachers, students and parents
Measures for unwanted behavior:
Recap of skills that are obtained in earlier training
Inform teachers on protocol in case of unwanted behavior
Publication of protocol in school guide and news letter
Improvement of parents involvement:
Conducting and using parent forms
Inviting parents to theme meetings
Proactive attitude in regards to parents:
Issues regarding unwanted behavior from parents are inventoried, teachers can get assistance when wanted
Agreements are made about contact with parents
Improvement of parents involvement:
Organising two parent meetings
Measures for unwanted behavior:
Protocol to deal with escalation
Communicating protocol to parents
Culture Empowerment teachers
Teachers can choose from educational activities in relation to time management and prioritization
If teachers experience a problem, they are invited to propose a solution
Investing in positive work climate:
Improve feedback culture among teachers
Closing school day with students in positive manner
Investing in positive work climate:
Teachers discuss school conduct rules with students
Students are approached positively and are motivated to commit to school rules
Empowerment teachers:
Feedback training (to improve feedback culture among colleagues)
Time management training
Investing in positive work climate:
Make project plan to develop, implement culture card that presents the ideal work culture
Increasing employee commitment:
Teachers are asked to submit creative idea for division of work tasks
During study day, tasks are divided by means of task market
Communication on important decisions from direction to teachers
Teambuilders assist at meetings
Teamleaders make workplace rounds between 8.00–8.15 o clock
Direction is visible at workplace – workplace rounds
Development of employees is discussed in development meeting with direction