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Table 5 Factors associated with smoking status among respondents

From: Waterpipe smoking among university students in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

 Waterpipe onlyCigarette onlyDual smoking
Relative risk ratio (RR) (95% CI)Relative risk ratio (RR) (95% CI)Relative risk ratio (RR) (95% CI)
CrudeAdjusted bCrudeAdjusted bCrudeAdjusted b
Gender
 MalesREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Females1.50(1.05–2.14)*1.92(1.14–3.22)*0.83(0.64–1.07)0.62(0.45–0.84)**0.67(053.-0.83)***1.11(0.85–1.45)
Age
 18–19 yearsREFREFREFREFREFREF
 20–21 years2.03(1.18–3.48)*1.91 (0.91–3.97)1.00(0.61–1.65)0.87(0.43–1.76)2.90(1.04–8.06)*3.59(1.03–12.54)*
 22–23 years2.50(1.50–4.17)***2.48(1.09–5.65)*2.28(0.88–5.87)2.19(1.20–3.98)*4.29(1.35–13.68)*5.22(0.88–31.10)
 24 year or older2.64(1.07–6.48)*2.53(0.94–6.82)5.39(2.72–10.67)***2.26 (1.26–4.07)**10.54(3.51–31.69)***9.28(2.03–42.44)**
Household incomea
 HK$19,000 or belowREFREFREFREFREFREF
 HK$20,000–$49,9991.02(0.59–1.78)0.78(0.47–1.29)0.52(0.36–0.76)**0.51(0.37–0.72)***1.09(0.61–1.95)0.77(0.43–1.38)
 HK$50,000 or above2.51(1.25–5.07)*1.40(0.55–3.55)0.63(0.35–1.13)0.34(0.16–0.72)**2.19(1.08–4.41)*0.83(0.28–2.44)
Qualification of study
 UndergraduateREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Postgraduate0.87(0.42–1.78)0.71(0.26–1.96)4.18(3.25–5.36)***2.77(1.42–5.41)**2.35(1.60–3.44)***1.35(0.64–2.84)
Alcohol consumption
 NeverREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Once a month or less9.59(3.75–24.56)***13.98(4.42–45.24)***1.69(1.16–2.46)**1.70(0.97–2.99)3.58(1.64–7.77)**2.59(1.11–6.01)*
 More than monthly36.24(15.03–87.38)***45.73(11.44–182.73)***3.49(2.29–5.33)***3.01(1.76–5.14)***36.17(18.75–69.78)***25.66(10.74–61.32)***
Sensation-seeking behaviour
 Low (8–18)REFREFREFREFREFREF
 Medium (19–29)2.80(1.87–4.19)***1.72(1.13–2.62)*1.81(1.13–2.89)*1.36(0.63–2.93)3.06(2.47–3.80)***1.64(1.02–2.64)*
 High (30–40)6.57(4.29–10.06)***2.79(1.49–5.24)**5.36(3.33–8.63)***3.58(1.38–9.27)**14.60(9.28–22.96)***4.82 (1.81–12.88)**
Loneliness
 Not lonelyREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Lonely (≥6)0.68(0.43–1.10)0.77(0.52–1.16)1.43(1.13–1.82)**1.37(0.76–2.49)0.78(0.59–1.04)0.78(0.42–1.44)
  1. Key: a US$ 1 = HK$ 7.82; b Adjusted for all variables listed in the table (i.e., gender, age, household income, qualification of study, alcohol consumption, sensation-seeking behaviour and loneliness); *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001