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Table 4 Demographics of respondents according to smoking status

From: Waterpipe smoking among university students in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

 Never smokedWaterpipe onlyCigarette onlyDual smokingp value
Total, n (%)876 (68.0)140 (10.9)106 (8.2)166 (12.89) 
Gender, n (%)    0.010
 Males277 (31.6)33 (23.6)38 (35.9)68 (41.0)
 Females599 (68.4)107 (76.4)68 (64.1)98 (59.0)
Age, n (%)    < 0.001
 18–19 years155 (17.8)12 (8.6)9 (8.6)7 (4.2)
 20–21 years344 (39.4)54 (38.6)20 (19.1)45 (27.1)
 22–23 years227 (26.0)44 (31.4)30 (28.6)44 (26.5)
 24 year or older147 (16.8)30 (21.4)46 (43.8)70 (42.2)
- Age, mean (SD)21.9 (3.5)22.3 (2.6)24.1 (4.7)24.0 (4.6)< 0.001
- Initiation age, mean (SD)19.9 (2.4)17.2 (5.1)20.5 (4.3)b/18.8 (4.0)c
Household income, n (%)a    < 0.001
 HK$19,999 or below288 (45.5)40 (39.2)51 (60.7)46 (39.3)
 HK$20,000 - HK$49,999282 (44.6)40 (39.2)26 (31.0)49 (41.9)
 HK$50,000 or above63 (10.0)22 (21.6)7 (8.3)22 (18.8)
Qualification of study, n (%)    < 0.001
 Undergraduate652 (86.1)100 (87.7)55 (59.8)90 (72.6)
 Postgraduate105 (13.9)14 (12.3)37 (40.2)34 (27.4)
Alcohol consumption, n (%)    < 0.001
 Never301 (34.4)5 (3.6)22 (20.8)9 (5.4)
 Once a month or less477 (54.5)76 (54.3)59 (55.7)51 (30.7)
 More than monthly98 (11.2)59 (42.1)25 (23.6)106 (63.9)
Sensation-seeking behaviour, n (%)    < 0.001
 Low (8–18)264 (30.1)17 (12.1)18 (17.0)16 (9.6) 
 Medium (19–29)560 (63.9)101 (72.1)69 (65.1)104 (62.7)
 High (30–40)52 (5.9)22 (15.7)19 (17.9)46 (27.7)
Loneliness, n (%)    0.021
 Not lonely344 (39.3)68 (48.6)33 (31.1)75 (45.2)
 Lonely (≥6)532 (60.7)72 (51.4)73 (68.9)91 (54.8)
  1. Key: a US$ 1 = HK$ 7.82; b Waterpipe; c Cigarette