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Table 3 Factors associated with waterpipe smoking among respondents

From: Waterpipe smoking among university students in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

 Odd Ratio (OR) (95% CI)
CrudeAdjusted b
Gender
 MalesREFREF
 Females0.96(0.78–1.17)1.57(1.22–2.02)***
Age
 18–19 yearsREFREF
 20–21 years2.35(1.18–4.68)*2.48(1.07–5.72)*
 22–23 years2.96(1.43–6.09)**3.05(1.01–9.22)*
 24 year or older4.47(1.77–11.32)**4.17(1.35–12.93)*
Household incomea
 HK$19,000 or belowREFREF
 HK$20,000–$49,9991.14(0.69–1.89)0.87(0.52–1.45)
 HK$50,000 or above2.48(1.26–4.88)**1.32(0.55–3.15)
Qualification of study 
 UndergraduateREFREF
 Postgraduate1.26(0.83–1.90)0.82(0.43–1.55)
Alcohol consumption
 NeverREFREF
 Once a month or less5.47(2.78–10.77)***5.10(2.30–11.30)***
 More than monthly30.95(16.33–58.67)***26.02(10.91–62.09)***
Sensation-seeking behaviour
 Low (8–18)REFREF
 Medium (19–29)2.79(2.15–3.61)***1.63(1.08–2.46)***
 High (30–40)8.18(6.13–10.93)***2.98(1.46–6.08)***
Loneliness
 Not lonelyREFREF
 Lonely (≥6)0.71(0.53–0.96)*0.74(0.47–1.16)
  1. Key: a US$ 1 = HK$ 7.82; b Adjusted for all variables listed in the table (i.e., gender, age, household income, qualification of study, alcohol consumption, sensation-seeking behaviour and loneliness); *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001