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Table 5 Factors associated with double burden categories in a multivariable logistic regression analysis in a sample of adults in rural Tamil Nadu, South India

From: Socio-demographic patterning of the individual-level double burden of malnutrition in a rural population in South India: a cross-sectional study

 Anemia only
OR (95% CI)
Overweight onlyCo-morbid anemia and overweight
Age (continuous)1.03 (1.02, 1.05)a1.01 (1.00, 1.03)1.01 (0.99, 1.03)
Female sex (male as referent)3.0 (2.03, 4.46)a1.30 (0.82, 2.05)2.31 (1.39, 3.85)a
High caste (Brahmin)3.95 (1.75, 8.93)a3.17 (1.34, 7.49)a
Wealth index1.06 (1.01, 1.13)a1.05 (1.00, 1.12)b
Rurality index0.69 (0.58, 0.81)a0.69 (0.56, 0.85)a
Tobacco consumption0.55 (0.32, 0.96)b
Livestock ownership0.51 (0.29, 0.89)b
Meat and poultry intake (g/1000 kcal)0.75 (0.61, 0.94)b
  1. Only variables associated with one or more outcome level (p < 0.05) are displayed
  2. The dependent variable is a multi-level outcome: 0 = neither anemia nor overweight (referent, not shown); 1 = anemia only; 2 = overweight only; 3 = both anemic and overweight
  3. Definitions as follows: anemia, Hb < 130 g/dL for men, < 120 g/dL for women; overweight, ≥23 kg/m2
  4. ap < 0.01; bp < 0.05; cp < 0.1; dp < 0.2
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