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Table 4 Clinical, sociodemographic, and dietary characteristics by double burden diagnostic category in a sample of adults from rural South India

From: Socio-demographic patterning of the individual-level double burden of malnutrition in a rural population in South India: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicCategory 1: Neither anemia nor diabetes (n = 348)Category 2: Anemia only (n = 313)Category 3: Diabetes only (n = 46)Category 4: Co-morbid anemia and diabetes (n = 42)p-value for trend*
Descriptive characteristics
 Age44.6 ± 14.048.7 ± 15.448.9 ± 12.754.9 ± 13.4< 0.001a,c
 Women (%)44.267.845.754.8< 0.001a,d
 Hypertension (%)25.828.256.546.3< 0.001b,c,d
 Rurality Index0.14 ± 1.770.092 ± 1.60− 096 ± 1.96−0.83 ± 1.49< 0.001b,c,d,e
 Current tobacco consumer (%)41.237.237.038.10.76
 Family history of diabetes (%)7.77.636.928.6< 0.00b,c,d,e
 Muslim (Hindu as referent) religion (%)3.42.210.99.50.006d
Wealth and possession attributes
 Wealth index11.38 ± 4.4510.39 ± 4.7111.85 ± 5.1410.50 ± 5.220.02
 Pucca housing (%)13.111.823.916.70.14
 Land ownership (acres)1.42 ± 1.831.22 ± 1.791.18 ± 2.040.68 ± 1.090.06
 In-house tap water (%)7.16.423.911.9< 0.001b,d
Physical activity habits
 Physical Activity (hours/day of moderate physical activity)4.47 ± 3.733.92 ± 3.562.16 ± 3.002.47 ± 3.44< 0.001b,c,d
 Sedentary time (hours/day)4.19 ± 2.634.53 ± 2.785.38 ± 2.875.33 ± 2.860.007c.d
 Television time (hours/day)1.45 ± 1.311.49 ± 1.311.55 ± 1.291.19 ± 1.250.57
 Labour occupation (%)53.058.845.742.90.09
 Livestock ownership (%)4839.626.128.60.003b
Dietary intake (g/1000 kcal unless otherwise specified)
 Current alcohol consumer (%)51.643.65035.70.08
 Total energy intake (kcal/day)2451 ± 8292349 ± 6492324 ± 6262153 ± 5190.04
 Carbohydrates179.2 ± 14.8181.0 ± 13.4174.1 ± 18.2178.7 ± 14.70.024
 Protein25.8 ± 02.125.4 ± 01.725.0 ± 01.925.8 ± 01.60.06
 Total fat19.7 ± 5.319.4 ± 5.221.3 ± 5.520.1 ± 5.00.16
 Dietary fibre220.0 ± 51.6219.6 ± 81.6220.6 ± 108.0217 ± 63.90.99
 Dairy products79.2 ± 71.479.6 ± 65.095.3 ± 58.989.2 ± 69.30.38
 Pulses and legumes27.5 ± 11.627.5 ± 11.928.3 ± 13.327.4 ± 09.30.97
 Meat and poultry3.7 ± 4.52.6 ± 3.13.7 ± 4.62.5 ± 3.20.003a
 Fruits and vegetables77.0 ± 48.376.6 ± 50.774.9 ± 43.370.4 ± 33.10.86
 Refined grains67.1 ± 32.376.6 ± 50.774.9 ± 43.370.4 ± 33.10.86
  1. *P-values are for Pearson’s chi square for proportions and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) for means
  2. aCategory 1 versus 2 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; bCategory 1 versus 3 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; cCategory 1 versus 4 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; dCategory 2 versus 3 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; eCategory 2 versus 4 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; fCategory 3 versus 4 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison
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