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Table 4 Regression coefficients and odds ratios of Generalised Estimation Equations of perceived cues, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and knowledgea,b

From: Differences in smokers’ awareness of the health risks of smoking before and after introducing pictorial tobacco health warnings: findings from the 2012–2017 international tobacco control (ITC) Netherlands surveys

 2012–2017 β (95% CI)2012–2015 β (95% CI)2015–2017 β (95% CI)p-valuec
Perceived cues0.052 (0.013 to 0.091)*−0.026 (−0.067 to 0.015)0.119 (0.066 to 0.172)**p = 0.002
Perceived susceptibility0.014 (−0.032 to 0.059)0.010 (−0.033 to 0.053)0.043 (−0.002 to 0.088)p = 0.044
Perceived severity0.015 (−0.025 to 0.054)− 0.010 (− 0.052 to 0.032)−0.006 (− 0.032 to 0.021)p = 0.764
Knowledge – sum score0.194 (0.090 to 0.299)**0.116 (0.028 to 0.203)*0.184 (0.088 to 0.280)**p < 0.001
 Blindness1.465 (1.309 to 1.641)**1.250 (1.097 to 1.425)*1.867 (1.645 to 2.120)**p < 0.001
 Heart disease1.116 (1.013 to 1.229)1.113 (1.013 to 1.222)1.114 (0.994 to 1.249)p = 0.051
 Impotence1.185 (1.085 to 1.294)**1.106 (1.018 to 1.200)1.183 (1.076 to 1.302)*p < 0.001
 Lung cancer0.907 (0.803 to 1.025)1.087 (0.965 to 1.226)0.910 (0.802 to 1.033)p = 0.053
 Mouth and throat cancer1.121 (1.103 to 1.241)**1.136 (1.033 to 1.249)*1.178 (1.047 to 1.327)*p = 0.031
 Stroke1.170 (1.074 to 1.275)**1.107 (1.017 to 1.205)1.112 (1.007 to 1.226)p = 0.001
 Lung cancer due to SHS1.022 (0.941 to 1.108)0.976 (0.900 to 1.060)1.050 (0.960 to 1.150)p = 0.095
 Heart disease due to SHS1.080 (0.996 to 1.171)1.042 (0.958 to 1.132)1.159 (1.055 to 1.273)*p = 0.106
  1. SHS secondhand smoke
  2. a: Estimates were weighted for age, and gender
  3. b: Analyses were controlled for age group, gender, educational level, level of addiction to tobacco, intention to quit smoking, and ever having made a quit attempt
  4. c: Of the interaction term between the intervention factor (introduction of PHWs) and Wave, in the GEE analysis over the years 2012–2017
  5. *p < 0.01, **p < 0.001