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Table 3 Association of moderate underweight with conflict status, child-, household- and cluster- and state-level characteristics

From: Armed conflict as a determinant of children malnourishment: a cross-sectional study in The Sudan

 Model (1)
OR (95%CI)
Model (2)
OR (95%CI)
Model (3)
OR (95%CI)
Model (4)
OR (95%CI)
Model (5)
OR (95%CI)
Conflict intensity level/year of eruption
 Conflict-free (ref)     
 Low intensity/2005 (LI/2005) 1.34* (1.03–1.74)1.33+ (1.00–1.78)0.99 (0.78–1.25)1.05 (0.84–1.32)
 High intensity/2011 (HI/2011) 1.22 (0.94–1.59)1.24 (0.92–1.68)0.90 (0.71–1.14)0.96 (0.76–1.20)
 High intensity/2003 (HI/2003) 1.27* (1.03–1.56)1.29* (1.02–1.63)0.83+ (0.68–1.02)0.96 (0.77–1.22)
Child age  2.24*** (1.93–2.59)2.26*** (1.95–2.62)2.26*** (1.95–2.62)
Presence of diarrhoea
 No (ref)     
 Yes  1.42*** (1.25–1.62)1.41*** (1.24–1.60)1.41*** (1.24–1.60)
Mother education
 None   1.22+ (0.99–1.51)1.17 (0.94–1.44)
 Primary   1.12 (0.93–1.34)1.10 (0.91–1.32)
 Secondary + (ref)     
Household wealth index quintile
 Poorest   2.76*** (1.99–3.84)1.97*** (1.35–2.87)
 Second   2.43*** (1.80–3.29)1.83*** (1.31–2.57)
 Middle   2.05*** (1.56–2.69)1.70*** (1.27–2.28)
 Fourth   1.73*** (1.36–2.20)1.58*** (1.24–2.01)
 Richest (ref)     
Food consumption profile (FCP)
 Poor consumption   1.02 (0.74–1.41)1.05 (0.76–1.45)
 Borderline consumption   0.96 (0.81–1.15)0.98 (0.82–1.16)
 Acceptable consumption (ref)     
Area of residence
 Rural    1.56*** (1.29–1.88)
 Urban (ref)     
Intercept0.27*** (0.24–0.30)0.23*** (0.20–0.27)0.09*** (0.07–0.11)0.05*** (0.03–0.06)0.04*** (0.03–0.06)
State-level variance0.03 (0.01–0.10)0.01 (0.001–0.10)0.02 (0.003–0.01)0.003 (5e−06-1.53)7.66e−35-
Cluster-level variance0.31*** (0.23–0.43)0.31*** (0.23–0.43)0.36*** (0.27–0.50)0.25*** (0.17–0.36)0.22*** (0.14–0.33)
Household-level variance0.48*** (0.26–0.86)0.47*** (0.26–0.86)0.59*** (0.35–1.01)0.59*** (0.35–1.01)0.57*** (0.33–0.98)
State-level ICC0.010.0030.0040.0011.88e-35
Cluster-level ICC0.080.080.090.060.05
Household-level ICC0.200.190.230.200.20
Observations90809080908090809080
LR chi2 7.702216.864303.887329.704
  1. Values are relative odds ratios; 95% confidence intervals in brackets unless stated otherwise
  2. The dependent variable: moderate underweight vs. normal
  3. +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  4. Model (1): the empty model
  5. Model (2): adjusted for conflict intensity
  6. Model (3): adjusted for conflict intensity + child-level predictors
  7. Model (4): adjusted for conflict intensity + child-level predictors + household-level predictors
  8. Model (5): adjusted for conflict intensity + child-level predictors + household-level predictors + cluster-level predictors + state-level predictors