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Table 4 Relationship between patient’s characteristics and incidence of catastrophic health expenditure in rural Shandong, China, 2016

From: Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative study between hypertensive patients with and without complication in rural Shandong, China

VariableOne complicationTwo or more complicationsNo complication
 N (%)χ2PN (%)χ2PN (%)χ2P
Age (years) 8.660.034 4.850.089 25.910.000
  ≤ 4510 (1.0)  0 (0.0)  50 (2.5)  
 46–60218 (21.5)  10 (11.0)  559 (27.8)  
 61–70478 (47.2)  48 (52.7)  812 (40.4)  
  > 70303 (30.3)  33 (36.3)  588 (29.3)  
Sex 1.100.294 7.970.005 1.870.172
 Male337 (33.3)  35 (38.5)  770 (38.3)  
 Female676 (66.7)  56 (61.5)  1239 (61.7)  
Marital status 15.110.001 0.000.991 57.730.000
 Single12 (1.2)  0 (0.0)  52 (2.6)  
 Married828 (81.7)  72 (79.1)  1671 (83.2)  
 Bereft of spouse a173 (17.1)  19 (20.9)  286 (14.2)  
Education 1.410.703 9.170.027 21.130.000
 None528 (52.1)  47 (51.6)  816 (40.6)  
 Primary school314 (31.0)  25 (27.5)  718 (35.7)  
 Junior school134 (13.2)  13 (14.3)  370 (18.4)  
 Senior school or above37 (3.7)  6 (6.6)  105 (5.2)  
Household income 23.050.000 2.930.403 32.330.000
 Q1b279 (27.5)  35 (38.5)  469 (23.3)  
 Q2270 (26.7)  23 (25.3)  481 (23.9)  
 Q3260 (25.7)  18 (19.8)  523 (26.0)  
 Q4204 (20.1)  15 (16.5)  536 (26.7)  
Health insurancec 3.380.337 2.250.522 3.720.294
 URBMI970 (95.8)  86 (94.5)  1927 (95.9)  
 UEBMI13 (1.3)  1 (1.1)  26 (1.3)  
 CMI3 (0.3)  1 (1.1)  7 (0.3)  
 Others d27 (2.7)  3 (3.1)  49 (2.4)  
Duration of disease 1.670.645 0.890.828 1.740.629
  ≤ 5255 (25.2)  14 (15.4)  762 (37.9)  
 6–10319 (31.5)  32 (35.2)  699 (34.8)  
 11–15171 (16.9)  16 (17.6)  210 (10.5)  
  > 15268 (26.5)  29 (31.9)  338 (16.8)  
In-Patient 192.490.000 33.580.000 219.110.000
 No287 (28.3)  44 (48.4)  1929 (95.6)  
 Yes726 (71.7)  47 (51.6)  80 (4.0)  
Out-Patient 10.060.002 8.030.005 55.490.000
 No200 (19.7)  62 (68.1)  1829 (91.0)  
 Yes813 (80.3)  29 (31.9)  181 (9.0)  
Dibaoe 18.330.000 0.010.932 0.040.839
 No68 (6.7)  78 (85.7)  1920 (95.6)  
 Yes945 (93.3)  13 (14.3)  89 (4.4)  
Be in debt 0.240.627 3.490.062 7.600.006
 No145 (14.3)  68 (74.7)  1771 (88.2)  
 Yes868 (85.7)  23 (25.3)  238 (11.8)  
Head of household 5.930.015 0.530.466 8.360.004
 No523 (51.6)  45 (49.5)  889 (44.3)  
 Yes490 (48.4)  46 (50.5)  1120 (55.7)  
Head of household’s gender 1.230.268 2.440.118 30.930.000
 Male766 (75.6)  72 (79.1)  432 (21.5)  
 Female247 (24.4)  19 (20.9)  1577 (78.5)  
Family size 15.230.000 3.310.069 0.160.694
  ≤ 4931 (91.9)  84 (92.3)  1843 (91.7)  
  > 482 (8.1)  7 (7.7)  166 (8.3)  
Living arrangements 10.930.000 1.740.42 79.090.000
 Empty-nest single156 (15.4)  15 (16.5)  269 (13.4)  
 Empty-nest couple670 (66.1)  63 (69.2)  1298 (64.6)  
 Others187 (18.5)  13 (14.3)  442 (22.0)  
  1. The P-values indicate statistical significance at 5% level
  2. a 8 divorced participants are categorized into the group “Bereft of spouse”
  3. b Quartile 1(Q1) is the poorest and Quartile 4(Q4) is the richest
  4. cURBMI Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance, UEBMI Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance, CMI Commercial Medical Insurance
  5. d 40 uninsured patients are categorized into the group “others”;
  6. e “Dibao” means low-income households in China, which living and medical aids from municipal governments and other welfare programs