Skip to main content

Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of study participants in rural Shandong, China, 2016

From: Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative study between hypertensive patients with and without complication in rural Shandong, China

CharacteristicsN (%)OR95%CI
Observations3113 (100)
Age (years)
  ≤ 4560 (1.90)1.0 
 45–60787 (25.3)3.010.72–12.57
 60–701338 (43.0)4.421.07–18.25*
  > 70928 (29.8)6.461.56–26.70*
Gender
 Male1142 (36.7)1.0 
 Female1971 (63.3)1.170.94–1.45
Marital status
 Single64 (2.1)1.0 
 Married2571 (82.6)1.980.72–5.49
 Bereft of spouse a478 (15.4)4.921.75–13.82**
Complications
 02009 (64.5)1.0 
 11013 (32.5)5.184.12–6.53***
  ≥ 291 (3.0)13.7368.76–21.55***
Education
 None1391 (44.7)1.0 
 Primary school1057 (34.0)0.610.48–0.76***
 Junior school517 (16.6)0.490.35–0.68***
 Senior school or above148 (4.8)0.580.34–0.99*
Household income
 Q4b755 (24.2)1.0 
 Q1783 (25.2)3.752.69–5.21***
 Q2774 (24.9)2.171.53–3.07***
 Q3801 (25.7)1.781.24–2.53*
Health insurancec
 URBMI2983 (95.8)1.0 
 UEBMI40 (1.3)0.330.08–1.36
 CMI11 (0.4)0.620.08–4.87
 Others d79 (2.5)0.510.22–1.18
Duration of disease (years)
  ≤ 51031 (33.1)1.0 
 5–101050 (33.7)1.260.96–1.65
 10–15397 (12.8)1.741.25–2.41**
  > 15635 (20.4)1.831.38–2.43***
In-Patient
 No2699 (86.7)1.0 
 Yes414 (13.3)16.5812.99–21.14***
Out-Patient
 No2703 (86.8)1.0 
 Yes410 (13.2)3.292.58–4.20***
Dibaoe
 No2943 (94.5)1.0 
 Yes170 (5.5)2.291.59–3.29***
Be in debt
 No2707 (87.0)1.0 
 Yes406 (13.0)0.990.66–1.24
Head of household
 No1424 (45.7)1.0 
 Yes1689 (54.3)1.311.06–1.61*
Head of household’s gender
 Male2415 (77.6)1.0 
 Female698 (22.4)1.711.36–2.14*
Family size
  ≤ 42858 (91.8)1.0 
  > 4255 (8.2)0.410.24–0.68**
Living arrangement
 Others642 (20.6)1.0 
 Empty-nest single440 (14.1)4.322.99–6.24***
 Empty-nest couple2031 (65.2)1.881.36–2.60***
  1. a 8 divorced participants are categorized into the group “Bereft of spouse”
  2. b Quartile 1(Q1) is the poorest and Quartile 4(Q4) is the richest
  3. cURBMI Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance, UEBMI Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance, CMI Commercial Medical Insurance
  4. d40 uninsured patients are categorized into the group “others”
  5. e “Dibao” means low-income households in China, which living and medical aids from municipal governments and other welfare programs
  6. *** Ρ < 0.001, ** Ρ < 0.01, * Ρ < 0.05