Skip to main content

Table 2 Multi-level mixed effect logistic regression on unmet need for contraception among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016 dataset, 2019

From: Individual and community-level factors associated with unmet need for contraception among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia; a multi-level analysis of 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

Individual-level variablesCOR
(95% CI)
Model 0 ICC = 12.74%Model 1 AOR (95% CI)Model 2 AOR(95%CI)Model 3
AOR (95% CI)
Age of women
15–191 1 1
20–240.89 (0.63, 1.26) 0.91 (0.64, 1.30) 0.91 (0.63, 1.29)
25–291.15 (0.84, 1.59) 0.98 (0.67, 1.42) 0.97 (0.66, 1.42)
30–341.49 (1.04, 2.15) 1.09 (0.70, 1.69) 1.07 (0.68, 1.66)
35–391.87 (1.29, 2.73) 1.27 (0.80, 1.99) 1.25 (0.79, 1.98)
40–442.34 (1.58, 3.46) 1.54 (0.93, 2.54) 1.51 (0.91, 2.51)
45–493.53 (2.28, 5.46) 2.28 (1.37, 3.80) 2.25 (1.34, 3.79)*
Age of marriage
< 18 years1 1 1
> 18 years0.79 (0.66, 0.95) 0.91 (0.75, 1.11) 0.90 (0.74, 1.10)
Husband occupation
Not working1 1 1
Gov’t employee0.89 (0.65, 1.23) 0.92 (0.66, 1.29) 0.90 (0.64, 1.27)
Merchant0.51 (0.33, 0.79) 0.67 (0.42, 1.07) 0.68 (0.43, 1.10)
Labourer0.61 (0.42, 0.89) 0.76 (0.51, 1.13) 0.79 (0.53, 1.18)
Others*1.05 (0.65, 1.71) 1.39 (0.83, 2.34) 1.44 (0.85, 2.44)
Education status of a mother
Not educated1 1 1
Primary0.76 (0.64, 0.90) 1.23 (0.98, 1.55) 1.23 (0.97, 1.53)
Secondary0.52 (0.36, 0.74) 1.11 (0.71, 1.76) 1.15 (0.72, 1.84)
College and above0.36 (0.24, 0.55) 0.88 (0.55, 1.42) 0.94 (0.58, 1.53)
Education status of husband
Not educated1 1 1
Primary0.72 (0.59, 0.86) 0.92 (0.76, 1.12) 0.88 (0.72, 1.08)
Secondary0.49 (0.37, 0.65) 0.86 (0.61, 1.22) 0.84 (0.59, 1.19)
Higher and above0.54 (0.37, 0.79) 1.09 (0.69, 1.72) 1.09 (0.69, 1.74)
Number of living children
< 31 1 1
> 32.28 (1.89, 2.73) 1.88 (1.42, 2.49) 1.87 (1.40, 2.49)*
Wealth
Poorest1 1 1
Poorer0.91 (0.73, 1.14) 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) 0.92 (0.72, 1.17)
Middle0.78 (0.60, 1.01) 0.86 (0.65, 1.13) 0.79 (0.60, 1.04)
Richer0.68 (0.52, 0.89) 0.78 (0.59, 1.03) 0.73 (0.54, 0.97)*
Richest0.47 (0.36, 0.63) 0.67 (0.46, 0.99) 0.68 (0.44, 1.05)
Visit health facility in the last 12 months
No1 1 1
Yes0.77 (0.65, 0.92) 0.87 (0.73, 1.02) 0.86 (0.72, 1.02)
Distance to a health facility
Big problem1 1 1
Not a big problem0.77 (0.63, 0.93) 0.88 (0.72, 1.08) 0.96 (0.77, 1.18)
Religion
Orthodox1 1 1
Protestant0.97 (0.75, 1.27) 0.92 (0.69, 1.23) 0.74 (0.53, 1.03)
Muslim1.54 (1.24, 1.93) 1.43 (1.12, 1.82) 1.37 (1.02, 1.83)*
Others**1.93 (1.15, 3.24) 1.94 (1.12, 3.38) 1.50 (0.84, 2.69)
Married more than once
No1 1 1
Yes1.39 (1.13, 1.72) 1.27 (1.02, 1.56) 1.31 (1.06, 1.62)*
Media exposure
No1 1 1
Yes0.70 (0.57, 0.86) 0.90 (0.71, 1.14) 0.89 (0.71, 1.13)
Community-level variables
Place of residence
Urban1  11
Rural2.24 (1.82, 2.75)  1.59 (1.06, 2.38)1.35 (0.84, 2.16)
Region
Addis Ababa1  11
Tigray1.74 (1.28, 2.36)  0.87 (0.59, 1.27)0.88 (0.5, 1.37)
Afar1.70 (1.22, 2.38)  0.79 (0.52, 1.22)0.61 (0.35, 1.05)
Amhara1.55 (1.15, 2.08)  0.72 (0.49, 1.06)0.67 (0.42, 1.05)
Oromia3.21 (2.40, 4.28)  1.50 (1.02, 2.20)1.43 (0.89, 2.27)
Somali1.17 (0.82, 1.67)  0.52 (0.33, 0.81)0.34 (0.19, 0.61)*
Benishangul Gumze2.37 (1.72, 3.26)  1.12 (0.75, 1.66)1.02 (0.64, 1.62)
SNNP2.18 (1.60, 2.95)  0.98 (0.66, 1.47)1.19 (0.75, 1.91)
Gambela2.50 (1.75, 3.58)  1.46 (0.94, 2.27)1.64 (0.99, 2.70)
Harari2.23 (1.57, 3.16)  1.37 (0.95, 1.96)1.27 (0.81, 2.00)
Dire Dewa2.07 (1.40, 3.07)  1.34 (0.90, 1.98)1.12 (0.69, 1.82)
Continuous variablesCoefficient
(95% CI)
  Coefficient
(95% CI)
Coefficient
(95% CI)
Community level of media exposure−0.006(−0.011,
−0.002)
  0.99 (0.99, 1.00)0.99 (0.99, 1.00)
Community level of education−0.014(−0.018,
−0.010)
  0.99 (0.98, 1.00)1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
  1. * = significant at 5%, SNNP = Southern nation, nationalities and peoples, Others* = who didn’t know at the time of interview and recorded as others in EDHS primarily, Others** = Catholic and traditional religion followers