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Table 1 Summary of pre-defined themes and codes from IDIs and FGDs

From: Feasibility of an HIV self-testing intervention: a formative qualitative study among individuals, community leaders, and HIV testing experts in northern Tanzania

Pre-defined themesCodes
Attitude about HIVST
 Experiential attitudeEmotional response related to the uptake of HIVST including enjoying the freedom to test oneself, relief to avoid needle pricks, and fear of seeing blood.
 Instrumental attitudeAttitude towards HIVST, with anticipated positive consequences, including self-testing at a place of one’s choice, privacy, and convenience, avoiding long queues; reducing time visiting health facilities; less testing and waiting time for test results; reducing counselor’s workload; reducing indirect costs.
Perceived norms towards HIVST
 Injunctive normsA belief that significant people in their social environment, such as parents and peers, would approve (or disapprove) the use of HIVST.
 Descriptive normsAn individual’s belief about whether significant people in their social environment, such as parents and peers would use (or not use) HIVST.
Personal agency towards HIVST
 Perceived controlControl belief:
A perceived likelihood that HIVST will empower people to self-test for HIV. HIVST is likely to minimize stigma; lack of counseling is likely to motivate people to use HIVST
Beliefs about the facilitators for performance:
Easy access of kits; availability of self-test kits; disclosure of negative results; positive results triggers action; appropriate locations for delivery of HIVST; strategies for advocacy HIVST; strategies for linkage to HIV care.
Beliefs about barriers to performance:
Unaffordable kit price; poverty; illiteracy; poor eye-sight; cost-benefit of HIVST; lack of HIVST policy; lack of counseling & linkage to HIV care; limitations of rapid HIV tests.
 Self-efficacyThe availability of face-to-face counseling will clear doubts about an individual’s capacity to perform HIVST; correct information would increase HIVST knowledge and the capacity to perform HIVST; less confidence to use HIVST correctly when alone.