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Table 2 Final Themes and sub-themes

From: Why is tobacco control progress in Indonesia stalled? - a qualitative analysis of interviews with tobacco control experts

Themes and Sub-themesDefinition
I. InstitutionsActors that are responsible for establishing tobacco control policy
 I.1. Political structure and type of policy: multistage delayBarriers to policy adoption and implementation due to government and parliament structures and relationships.
 I.2. Government bureaucracy and corruptionLoopholes within government that are prone to tobacco industry interference, including the complexity of government roles and responsibilities and degree of corruption.
 I.3. Role of Ministry of Health (MoH): low bargaining positionPerceived role and position of MoH in efforts to strengthen tobacco control
II. AgendaFraming of tobacco and tobacco control in Indonesia
 II.1 Political economy framing of tobacco: We need the money- we need the employmentPerception of tobacco as an economic commodity and a source of income and employment rather than a threat to health and community prosperity.
 II.2. Sovereignty framing: tobacco control is an “outsider” projectViewing the tobacco control movement as a foreign agenda and a threat to national sovereignty.
III. NetworksPressure participants and power shifts.
 III.1 Tobacco industry network: Established and well-fundedWell established tobacco industry network that infiltrates the policy system with funding and frontline groups
 III.2. Tobacco Control Network: Resources and cohesionTobacco control is an ongoing movement with potential competition and limited resources.
IV. Socio-economic factorsThe exclusive positioning of tobacco in the community contributes to its exception within the law and barriers to policy change
 IV.1. Social acceptability of tobacco: cigarettes are legal, and smoking is normalCommunity views toward cigarettes, smoking, and tobacco companies are influenced by high smoking rates and tobacco industry tactics
 IV.2 Tobacco exception in the lawPrivilege and exception given to tobacco within the law compared to alcohol, which potentially hampers the advancing of tobacco control
V. Ideas and transfer of ideasViews toward the availability of evidence and best practices, and perceptions of the barriers to transfer of evidence to policy makers.