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Table 4 Multivariable regression analysis of determinants for child development in rural Tanzania*

From: Psychosocial and environmental determinants of child cognitive development in rural south africa and tanzania: findings from the mal-ed cohort

 Full Scale IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Verbal IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Performance IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Environmental Factors
 Organization of the Environment1.29 [-2.07, 4.65]1.29 [-0.71, 3.30]-0.008 [-1.89, 1.87]
 Provision of Play Material-3.55*[-6.91, -0.18]-0.80 [-2.80, 1.21]-2.75* [-4.63, -0.87]
 Opportunities for Stimulation3.01 [-1.10, 7.12]1.78 [-0.67, 4.23]1.32 [-1.07, 3.53]
 Cleanliness of the Child1.45 [-2.07, 4.96]0.61 [-1.48, 2.70]0.84 [-1.12, 2.80]
 Socioeconomic Status13.30 [-1.53, 28.13]3.93 [-4.91, 12.78]9.37* [1.08, 17.66]
Maternal Factors
 Responsivity of the Caregiver-2.37 [-6.37, 1.63]-1.01 [-3.40, 1.37]-1.35 [-3.59, 0.88]
 Avoidance of Punishment-5.99 [-12.55, 0.58]1.75 [-0.32, 3.81]-3.35 [-7.02, 0.32]
 Promotion of Child Development-1.81 [-5.78, 2.16]-0.11 [-3.48, 1.26]-0.70 [-2.92, 1.52]
 Depressive Symptoms 1,6, 12 mo.3.93*[0.12, 7.74]3.11*[0.84, 5.39]0.82 [-1.31, 2.95]
 Depressive Symptoms 24, 36 mo.-2.74 [-6.74, 1.26]-0.92 [-3.31, 1.47]-1.82 [-4.06, 0.42]
 Depressive Symptoms 60 mo.0.53 [-4.24, 5.30]0.57 [-2.27, 3.42]-0.04 [-2.70, 2.62]
 Maternal Education > 7/10years2.29 [-11.37, 15.96]-6.02 [-14.16, 2.13]8.31* [0.67, 15.84]
  1. * Estimates in the tables above are adjusted for site, birthweight, field assessors, and all other variables in the table.
  2. * SD: WPPSI Score Difference
  3. * P-value < 0.05