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Table 3 Sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-seeking characteristics of participants with poor and good glycaemic control

From: Correlates of type 2 diabetes and glycaemic control in adults in Saudi Arabia a secondary data analysis of the Saudi health interview survey

 Poor glycaemic control
N = 164
Good glycaemic control
N = 227
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
Total nn (%)Total nn (%)  
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender164 227   
 Male 98 (59.8) 133 (58.6)REF 
 Female 66 (40.2) 94 (41.4)0.95 (0.63, 1.43)0.817
Missing0 0   
Age164 225   
  15-54 73 (44.5) 94 (41.8)REF 
  ≥ 55 91 (55.5) 131 (58.2)0.89 (0.59, 1.34)0.591
Missing0 2(%)   
Marital status164 227   
 Married 130 (79.3) 168 (74)REF 
 Not married 34 (20.7) 59 (26)0.74 (0.46, 1.20)0.228
Missing0 0   
Education level164 227   
Primary school or less 107 (65.2) 134 (59)REF 
Elementary or high school College degree or higher education completed 57 (34.8) 93 (41)0.76 (0.50, 1.16)0.212
Missing0 0   
BMI162 226   
Overweight or obesity 144 (88.9) 196 (86.7)REF 
Normal weight 18 (11.1) 30 (13.3)0.81 (0.43, 1.52)0.523
Missing2 1   
Lifestyle characteristics
Smoking status164 227   
 Previous smoker 17 (10.4) 18 (7.9)REF 
 Current smoker 17 (10.4) 26 (11.5)1.44 (0.58, 3.55)0.424
 Never smoke 130 (79.3) 183 (80.6)1.32 (0.66, 2.67)0.425
Missing0 0   
Dietary fat intake161 224   
Vegetable or olive oils 138 (85.7) 204 (91.1)REF 
Animal fat or margarine or none in particular 23 (14.3) 20 (8.9)1.55 (0.81, 2.97)0.182
Missing3 3   
Dietary meat intake/week????156 206   
0–7 114 (73.1) 156 (75.7)REF 
8+ 42 (26.9) 50 (24.3)1.14 (0.71, 1.85)0.566
Missing8 21   
Dietary fruits and vegetables intake/week??151 206   
0–2 64 (42.4) 113 (54.9)REF 
3+ 87 (57.6) 93 (45.1)1.65 (1.08, 2.52)0.020
Missing13 21   
Dietary fast food intake/week???146 198   
0–1 122 (83.6) 181 (91.4)REF 
2+ 24 (16.4) 17 (8.6)2.09 (1.08, 4.06)0.026
Missing18 29   
Work physical activity164 227   
No 161 (98.2) 226 (99.6)REF 
Yes 3 (1.8) 1 (0.4)4.21 (0.43, 40.85)0.178
Missing0 0   
Sport physical activity164 222   
No 155 (94.5) 197 (97.8)REFREF
Yes 9 (5.5) 5 (2.2)2.57 (0.84, 7.84)0.084
Missing0 5   
Walking behaviour more than 10 mints per day164 225   
No 66 (40.2) 114 (50.7)REF 
Yes 98 (59.8) 111 (49.3)1.52 (1.01, 2.29)0.042
Missing0 2   
TV viewing time / per day145 206   
0–3 Hours 98 (67.6) 140 (68)REF 
4+ Hours 47 (32.4) 66 (32)1.01 (0.64, 1.60)0.941
Missing19 21   
Sitting time / per day146 202   
0–4 Hours 61 (41.8) 100 (49.5)REF 
5+ Hours 85 (58.2) 102 (50.5)1.36 (0.88, 2.09)0.154
Missing18 25   
Health seeking behaviours      
Hypertension164 227   
No 7 (4.3) 13 (5.7)REF 
Yes 157 (95.7) 214 (94.3)1.36 (0. 53-3.49)0.518
Missing0 0   
Chronic disease diagnosis147 214   
No 147 (76.2) 159 (74.3)REF 
Yes 35 (23.8) 55 (25.7)0.90 (0.55, 1.47)0.683
Missing17 13   
Self-reported health status164 226   
Very good or good 126 (76.8) 170 (75.2)REF 
Fair or poor 38 (23.2) 56 (24.8)0.91 (0.57, 1.46)0.714
Missing0 1   
Self-reported health status compared with 12 months162 223   
Better or same 111 (68.5) 152 (68.2)REF 
Worse 51 (31.5) 71 (31.8)0.98 (0.63, 1.52)0.941
Missing2 4   
Visited health services101 147   
Illness or injury 13 (12.9) 15 (10.2)REF 
Other services 88 (87.1) 132 (89.8)0.76 (0.34, 1.69)0.514
Missing63 80   
  1. REF Reference category for statistical analysis, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index