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Table 1 Sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-seeking characteristics of participants with and without type 2 diabetes

From: Correlates of type 2 diabetes and glycaemic control in adults in Saudi Arabia a secondary data analysis of the Saudi health interview survey

 Type 2 diabetes
N = 808
No type 2 diabetes
N = 10,013
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
Total nn (%)Total nn (%)  
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender808 10,013   
Male 477 (59) 4819 (48.1)REF 
Female 331 (41) 5194 (51.9)0.64 (0.55, 0.74)<  0.001
Missing0 0   
Age802 9933   
15-54 352 (43.9) 8646 (87)REF 
≥ 55 450 (56.1) 1287 (13)8.58 (7.38, 9.99)<  0.001
Missing N%?6 (%) 80 (%)   
Marital status806 9978   
Married 619 (76.8) 4613 (64.3)REF 
Not married 187 (23.2) 3565 (35.7)0.54 (0.45, 0.64)<  0.001
Missing2 35   
Education level806 9991   
Primary school or less 477 (59.2) 2847 (28.5)REF 
Elementary or high school College degree or higher education completed 329 (40.8) 7177 (71.5)0.27 (0.23, 0.31)<  0.001
Missing2 22   
BMI797 9915   
Overweight or obesity 687 (86.2) 6466 (65.2)REF 
Normal weight 110 (13.8) 3449 (34.8)0.30 (0.24, 0.36)<  0.001
Missing11 98   
Lifestyle characteristics
Smoking status808 10,013   
Previous smoker 59 (7.3) 404 (4)REF 
Current smoker 114 (14.1) 1252 (12.5)0.62 (0.44, 0.87)<  0.001
Never smoked 635 (78.6) 8357 (83.5)0.52 (0.39, 0.69)<  0.001
Missing0 0   
Dietary fat intake793 9828   
Vegetable or olive oils 731 (92.2) 8993 (91.5)REF 
Animal fat or margarine or none in particular 62 (7.8) 835 (8.5)0.91 (0.69, 1.19)0.509
Missing15 185   
Dietary meat intake744 9048   
0–7 559 (75.1) 5859 (64.8)REF 
8+ 185 (24.9) 3189 (35.2)0.60 (0.51, 0.72)<  0.001
Missing64 965   
Dietary fruit and vegetable intake726 8885   
0–2 377 (51.9) 4628 (52.1)REF 
3+ 349 (48.1) 4257 (47.9)1.00 (0.86, 1.17)0.938
Missing82 1128   
Dietary fast food intake698 8661   
0–1 603 (86.4) 5557 (64.2)REF 
2+ 95 (13.6) 3104 (35.8)0.28 (0.22, 0.35)<  0.001
Missing110 1352   
Work physical activity808 10,013   
No 800 (99) 9791 (97.8)REF 
Yes 8 (1) 222 (2.2)0.44 (0.21, 0.89)0.021
Missing0 0   
Sport physical activity808 10,013   
No 771 (95.4) 8878 (88.7)REF 
Yes 37 (4.6) 1135 (11.3)0.37 (0.26, 0.52)<  0.01
Missing0 0   
Walking behaviour802 9904   
No 394 (49.1) 3991 (40.3)REF 
Yes 408 (50.9) 5913 (59.7)0.69 (0.60, 0.80)<  0.01
Missing4 109   
TV viewing time709 8644   
0–3 Hours 459 (64.7) 5090 (58.9)REF 
4+ Hours 250 (35.3) 3554 (41.1)0.78 (0.66, 0.91)0.002
Missing9 1369   
Sitting time732 8674   
0–4 Hours 345 (47.7) 4984 (57.5)REF 
5+ Hours 387 (52.3) 3690 (42.5)1.48 (1.27, 1.72)<  0.001
Missing76 1339   
Health seeking behaviours
Hypertension808 9945   
No 34 (4.2) 2610 (26.2)REF 
Yes 774 (95.8) 7335 (73.8)8.10 (5.72, 11.45)<  0.001
Missing0 68   
Chronic disease diagnosis755 9673   
No 560 (74.2) 8923 (92.2)REF 
Yes 195 (25.8) 750 (7.8)4.14 (3.46, 4.95)<  0.001
Missing53 340   
Self-reported health status806 9980   
Very good or good 627 (77.8) 9278 (93)REF 
Fair or poor 179 (22.2) 702 (7)3.77 (3.14, 4.53)<  0.001
Missing2 33   
Self-reported health status compared with 12 months794 9896   
Better or same 563 (70.9) 8482 (85.7)REF 
Worse 231 (29.1) 1414 (14.3)2.46 (2.09, 2.89)<  0.001
Missing14 117   
Visited health service519 6781   
Illness or injury 66 (12.7) 1303 (19.2)REF 
Other services 453 (87.3) 5478 (80.8)1.63 (1.25, 2.12)<  0.001
Missing289 3232   
  1. REF Reference category for statistical analysis, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index