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Table 3 Societal costs and benefits for all scenarios compared to reference over a 30-year period stratified by consumers and government

From: A social cost-benefit analysis of meat taxation and a fruit and vegetables subsidy for a healthy and sustainable food consumption in the Netherlands

Societal EffectsScenario compared to reference (range)a
15% meat tax30% meat tax10% fruits and vegetables subsidy
ConsumersGovernmentConsumersGovernmentConsumersGovernment
Healthcare costs €239 – 1613 €462 – 3081 €413 – 848
Health outcomes
 QALY €50,000€834 – 2246 €1598 – 4289 €1043 – 1564 
 QALY €100,000€1669 – 4492 €3196 – 8577 €2086 – 3127 
Productivity€41 – 253€272 – 1592€79 – 483€525 – 3038€78 – 158€396 – 849
Environment €3390 €6336 €−113
Policy revenue €19,780 €36,334 €−9888
Consumer surplus€−21,468 €−41,264 €9892 
Policy costs €−20 €−20 €−20
Total welfare benefits (QALY €50,000)€–20,593 – −18,969€23,661 – 26,355€-39,587 – −36,492€43,637 – 48,769€11,013 – 11,614€-9212 – −8324
Total welfare benefits (QALY €100,000)€–19,758 – −16,723€23,661 – 26,355€-37.989 – −32.204€43,637 – 48,769€12,056 – 13,177€-9212 – −8324
  1. Values are expressed in million 2018 euros