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Table 2 Total societal costs and benefits for all scenarios compared to reference over a 30-year period

From: A social cost-benefit analysis of meat taxation and a fruit and vegetables subsidy for a healthy and sustainable food consumption in the Netherlands

Societal EffectsScenario compared to reference (range)a
15% meat tax30% meat tax10% fruits and vegetables subsidy
Healthcare costs€239 – 1613€462 – 3081€413 – 848
Health outcomes
 QALY €50,000€834 – 2246€1598 – 4289€1043 – 1564
 QALY €100,000€1669 – 4492€3196 – 8577€2086 – 3127
Productivity€313 – 1845€604 – 3521€473 – 1007
Environment€3390€6336€−113
Policy revenue€19,780€36,334€−9888
Consumer surplus€−21,468€−41,264€9892
Policy costs€−20€−20€−20
Total welfare benefits (QALY €50,000)€3069 – 7386€4050 – 12,276€1800 – 3289
Total welfare benefits (QALY €100,000)€3904 – 9632€5648 – 16,565€2842 – 4853
  1. aBased on 100 iterations with the DYNAMO-HIA model using Monte Carlo simulations
  2. Values are expressed in million 2018 euros