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Table 4 Outcomes of interest

From: The relationship between household chaos and child, parent, and family outcomes: a systematic scoping review

Outcome of interestNTwinAgeaDesignbLow sesMeasure of HCOutcomes Assessed
C/OL
Cognitive & Academic [3, 7, 11, 24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36]
 Asbury, 2006 [24]20170 m, 4y, 7y  CHAOS short formHC as moderator between non-shared environment variables and academic achievement
 Berry, 2016 [25]1235 2 m, 7 m, 2y, 3y, 5y Interview/ observationAcademic achievement; executive function
 Deater-Deckard, 2009 [3]3024-7y CHAOS short formIQ
 Garrett-Peters, 2016 [26]1236 6, 15, 24, 36, 48, 58 m & kindergarten (USA) Interview/ observationHC as mediator between family income poverty and academic achievement in kindergarten
 Hanscombe, 2011 [27]23379 & 12y  CHAOS long formAcademic performance
 Hart, 2007 [11]287Kindergarten or 1st grade, then 1st or 2nd grade (USA)  CHAOS short formGeneral cognitive ability; HC as mediator between shared environmental variance and cognitive ability
 Hur, 2015 [28]444 36-70 m  CHAOS short formHC as mediator between parent depressive symptoms and child cognitive outcomes
 Johnson, 2008 [7]455mean 6.1 years   CHAOS short formWoodcock score
 Pike, 2006 [29]57650-3y, then 4y   CHAOS short formCognitive development
 Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2010 [30]203 8-11y  CHAOS long formAcademic achievement
 Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2011 [31]101 8-11y  CHAOS long formLearning at school
 Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2011 [33]203 8-11y  CHAOS long formStudy skills
 Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2011 [32]203 8-11y  CHAOS long formCognitive performance
 Taylor, 2014 [35] 7-13y  CHAOS short formHC as mediator between respect for rules and reading comprehension
 Taylor, 2017 [34]269 9-16y  CHAOS short formReading comprehension
 Yarboi, 2017 [36]65 6-16y  Interview/ observationIntellectual functioning; academic achievement; executive functioning
Socio-emotional & Behaviorual [3, 4, 6, 10, 14, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31,32,33, 37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83]
Response to Challenge & Task Persistence
  Brown, 2008 [42]96 3-5y Interview/ observationResponse to academic challenge
  Fuller-Rowell, 2015 [50]256 9.2, 13.1, 17.5y  CHAOS adaptedHC as a moderator between lower SES and task persistence
  Tomalski, 2017 [72]71 5.5 m  CHAOS long formProcessing speed
Behavioural & Social
  Asbury, 2003 [37]47064y  CHAOS short formHC as a mediator and moderator in the relationship between parenting and behavioural outcomes
  Asbury, 2006 [24]20170 m, 4y, 7y  CHAOS short formHC as moderator between non-shared environment variables and anxiety, hyperactivity, CP, and peer problems
  Berry, 2016 [25]1235 2 m, 7 m, 2y, 3y, 5y Interview/observationSocial problems
  Bobbitt, 2016 [38]2447 3-4y, 3.5–4.5y (6 m follow-up) Interview/observationBehavioural problems; social skills
  Bridgett, 2013 [39]85 4 m CHAOS long formHC as mediator in relationship between maternal self-regulation and infant negative emotionality
  Brieant, 2017 [40]167 13-14y  CHAOS short formHC as moderator in relationship between parental EF and impulsivity and adolescent EF
  Brown, 2010 [41]123 4–7.5y CHAOS long formChild attention (assessed by both parent report and computer task)
  Calam, 2012 [43]48 2-10y  CHAOS short formChild emotional difficulties
  Chatterjee, 2015 [44]929 Mean 16.4y  CHAOS short formSubstance use; sexual activity; and violence-related risk behaviours
  Chen, 2014 [45]149 3-7y  CHAOS short formTemperament-by-parenting interactionsd; HC as moderator
  Coldwell, 2006 [4]118 4-8y  CHAOS short formChild problem behaviour; HC as a moderator in relationship between parenting and child behaviour
  Deater-Deckard, 2009 [3]3024-7y  CHAOS short formCP
  Dumas, 2005 [10] (study 1)106 4-6y  CHAOS long formBehaviour problems; social competence; anger; aggression; attention; ability to understand and respond to social cues
  Dumas, 2005 [10] (study 2)676 7-11y CHAOS long formBehaviour problems (caregiver and teacher report)
  Evans, 2005 [14]339 Mean 9.2y at baseline CHAOS long form + 2 x questions on rituals and routinesHC as mediator in relationship between SES and socio-emotional adjustment
  Farbiash, 2014 [46]84 4y at follow-up  CHAOS short formHC as mediator in relationship between parental ADHD symptoms and preschool aggression
  Fisher, 2018 [80]390 8y at baseline, 15y at follow-up  CHAOS long form (14 questions)Psychopathic characteristics; CU; empathy; anxiety; aggression; delinquency; classroom climate quality as moderator of relationship between HC and adolescent outcomes
  Flouri, 2015 [48]10,086 3y, 5y, 7y  3 questions from CHAOS + 2 questions about bedtime and mealtimesOccupational aspirations at age 7 years
  Flouri, 2017 [47]180 3y, 5y, 7y, 11y  3 x CHAOS questionsHC as mediator in relationship between low SES and CP in children with ADHD
  Fontaine, 2011 [49]9578 4y, 7y, 12y  CHAOS short formCP; CU traits
  Gould, 2017 [51]5206-15y  CHAOS short formHC as moderator of relationship between genes and development of ADHD
  Gregory, 2005 [52]6612 3y, 4y  CHAOS short formAnxiety; HC as mediator of relationship between sleep problems and anxiety
  Gunzenhauser, 2017 [53]263 Mean 8.59y  CHAOS long formSelf-regulation
  Hannigan, 2017 [54]66469y, 12y, 14, 16y  CHAOS short formDepressive symptoms
  Hardaway, 2012 [55]731 Mean 3.4y CHAOS long formInhibitory control; problem behaviour; aggression
  Human, 2016 [56]261 13-16y at baseline (2-year follow-up)  CHAOS long formDepressive symptoms; perceived stress
  Hur, 2015 [28]444 36-70 m  CHAOS short formHC as mediator between parent depressive symptoms and child socio-emotional development, and behavioural self-regulation
  Jaffee, 2012 [57]62869y, 12y  CHAOS short formCP; hyperactivity-inattention
  Kahn, 2016 [58]115 Mean 13.97y  CHAOS short formModerated mediation analysis = Harsh parenting as a mediator in the relationship between parent CU traits and child CU traits, and then HC as a moderator of this relationship
  Kim-Spoon, 2017 [59]167 13-14y  CHAOS short formHC as moderator of relationship between parental control and social competence
  Lauharatanahirun, 2018 [81]167 13–15 years  CHAOS short formHC as moderator between parental knowledge and insular risk processing
  Laurent, 2014 [60]200 9 m, 18 m, 27 m, 4.5y, 6y  CHAOS short formBehaviour problems in adopted children
  Lemery-Chalfant, 2013 [61]807Mean 7.93y  CHAOS short formGenes as mediator in relationship between HC and child temperament (passive gene-environment); HC as moderator in relationship between genes and child temperament
  Martin, 2012 [6]1266 2.5y, 5y  Questionnaire designed for studyAttention; aggression; delayed gratification; Mediating role of maternal warmth and provision of learning materials in the home on the relationship between lack of routines and delayed gratification
  Midouhas, 2013 [62]209 9 m, 3y, 5y, 7y  3 items from the CHAOS short formCP in children with autism; HC as moderator of relationship between poverty and parenting, and psycopathology in children with autism
  Miller, 2017 [63]380 Preschool (USA) CHAOS long formNegative liability; emotion regulation
  Mills-Koonce, 2016 [64]~ 1292 2 m, 6 m, 15 m, 24 m, 36 m, first grade Interview/observationCU; CP; empathy; HC as moderator in relationship between parenting and child behaviours; Maternal sensitivity and harsh parenting as mediators in relationship between HC and child behaviour
  Oliver, 2008 [65]2858-10y  CHAOS short formHC as moderator in relationship between within-pair differences in perceptions of the classroom environment and teacher report of less prosocial and more hyperactive behaviour, and greater conduct and peer problems
  Panico, 2014 [66]6572 3y, 5y  3 items from CHAOSBehavioural outcomes
  Pike, 2006 [29]5765 0-3y, 4y   CHAOS short formBehavioural outcomes
  Raver, 2015 [67]1025 Followed between 6 m and 58 m Interview/observationAbility to recognise and modulate negative emotions
  Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2011 [31]101 8-11y  CHAOS long formAttention
  Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2011 [68]203 8-11y  CHAOS long formCP
  Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2011 [32]203 8-11y  CHAOS long formInternalising and externalising behaviours
  Shamama-tus-Sabah, 2011 [33]101 8-11y  CHAOS long formAdjustment problems
  Shapero, 2013 [69]956 Followed between birth and 15y  CHAOS long formChanges in emotional and behavioural problems between childhood and adolescence
  Shelleby, 2014 [70]731 2-3y, 4-5y, 7.5–8.5y CHAOS long formHC as mediator in relationship between income and emotional problems and CP
  Supplee, 2007 [71]120 2, 3, 4 & 5y CHAOS long formExternalising behaviours; Maternal monitoring as moderator in relationship between HC and externalising behaviours
  Towe-Goodman, 2011 [73]636 Infant, toddler, 3y CHAOS long formHC as moderator in relationship between interparental aggression in toddlerhood and the development of child attention skills and early childhood behaviour problems at age 3 years, in low-income families
  Tucker, 2015 [74]325 Mean 15.71y  CHAOS short formAdolescents’ future beliefs; Mother’s hostility as moderator in relationship between HC and adolescents’ future beliefs
  Tucker, 2018 [82]238 Followed between 10th grade (mean 15.59y) and 12th grade CHAOS short formProblematic substance use, depression; HC as moderator in relationship between hostile parenting and depression
  Valiente, 2007 [75]188 7-12y  CHAOS short formEffortful control; externalising behaviours
  Vernon-Feagans, 2016 [76]1145 2, 6, 15, 24, 48, & 60 months Interview/observationRegulatory behaviours in kindergarten; Parenting and executive function as mediators of the relationship between HC and behaviours
  Vilsaint, 2013 [77]364 2y, 5y CHAOS long formInternalising & externalising behaviours
  Vrijhof, 2018 [83]20134-66 m  CHAOS long fromEffortful control; cheating behaviour
  Wang, 2012 [78]304Mean 6.07y, 7.15y, & 8.30y  CHAOS short formHC as moderator in the genetic link between attention regulation and externalising behaviours
  Wilkinson, 2013 [79]~ 88002, 6, 15, 24, 48, & 60 months  CHAOS short formHC as moderator in relationship between genes and depressive symptoms (Gene × Environment interaction)
Communication [6, 7, 23, 25, 84, 85]
 Asbury, 2005 [84]22234y  CHAOS short formVerbal and non-verbal abilities; HC as moderator in the heritability of verbal and non-verbal abilities
 Berry, 2016 [25]1235 2 m, 7 m, 2y, 3y, 5y Interview/observationReceptive vocab
 Johnson, 2008 [7]455mean 6.1 years   CHAOS short formExpressive vocab and phonological awareness
 Martin, 2012 [6]1266 2.5y, 5y  Questions designed for studyReceptive vocab; Mediating role of provision of learning materials in the home on the relationship between lack of routines and receptive vocab
 Petrill, 2004 [23] 3 & 4y  CHAOS short formVerbal and non-verbal abilities; HC as mediator in relationship between shared environment and verbal and non-verbal scores
 Vernon-Feagans, 2012 [85]1145 2, 6, 15, 24, & 36 m Interview/observationReceptive and expressive language
Parenting, Family & Household Functioning [4, 10, 45, 75, 85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101]
Parenting
  Atzaba-Poria, 2008 [86]344 4-5y and an older sibling aged <=8y  CHAOS short formDifferential parenting
  Barnes, 2014 [87]24,610 3y  3 questions from CHAOSParent/child conflict & closeness; home learning environment; parenting
  Chen, 2014 [45]149 3-7y  CHAOS short formTemperament-by-parenting interactionsd; HC as a moderator
  Coldwell, 2006 [4]118 4-8y  CHAOS short formParenting
  Corapci, 2002 [88]57 12-14 m  CHAOS long formParenting; Parental self-efficacy and parent negative mood as mediators in relationship between HC and parenting
  Deater-Deckard, 2012 [89]147 3-7y  CHAOS short formHC as a moderator of maternal EF, which itself was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between child CP and harsh parenting
  Dumas, 2005 [10] (study 1)106 4-6y  CHAOS long formParental discipline, and accuracy and efficiency in a co-operative parent-child interactional task
  Kretschmer, 2009 [91]118 4-8y  CHAOS short formSibling relationships; Parenting as a mediator and moderator in the relationship between HC and sibling relationships
  Mokrova, 2010 [92]319 7y (group 1) & 10y (group 2)  CHAOS long formHC as mediator and moderator in relationships between maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting
  Nelson, 2009 [93]101 7y  CHAOS long formParental supportive and nonsupportive responses to child
  Pike, 2016 [94]106 Siblings aged 4–8 years at baseline & 9–13 years at follow-up  CHAOS short formSiblings’ perceptions of mothering and fathering
  Spilsbury, 2017 [96]26 11-12yd  CHAOS long formSleep-disturbing behaviours of family members
  Valiente, 2007 [75]188 7-12y  CHAOS short formPositive and negative reactions to child’s negative emotions
  Vernon-Feagans, 2012 [85]1123 2, 6, 15, 24, & 36 m Interview/ observationParenting as a mediator in the relationship between HC and language development
  Wang, 2013 [97]160 3-7y  CHAOS short formHC as a moderator in relationship between maternal attribution bias (e.g. whether they attribute child misbehaviour to the child’s intentions and dismiss situational factors) and parenting behaviour
  Whitesell, 2015 [98]100 1, 3, 6, 9, & 12 m  DISCORD - an observer reported measure of HCSES; life events; co-parenting; emotional availability at bedtime
  Wirth, 2017 [99]84 7-13y   CHAOS long formHC as mediator in relationship between children’s ADHD symptoms and inadequate parenting
  Zvara, 2014 [100]962 2, 6, 15, 24, 60 months & 1st grade Interview/ observationChildren’s representations of family dysfunction from drawings; mediating role of parenting in relationship between HC and family dysfunction
Household Characteristics and Food Security
  Fiese, 2016 [90]221 Elementary school (USA) CHAOS short formFood security
  Martin-Biggers, 2018 [101]550 2-5y  CHAOS short formFamily meals; food availability/security; family meal atmosphere
  Pinard, 2015 [95]252 0-18y CHAOS short formFood security
Parent Outcomes [12, 101,102,103,104,105]
 Deater-Deckard, 2012 [12]153 33-88 me  CHAOS short formMaternal EF; SES as moderator of relationship between HC and maternal EF
 MacRae, 2017 [102]44 1 ½ - 5ye  CHAOS long formParent fat intake and cortisol levels
 Madigan, 2017 [103]501 2-54 me  Adapted version of the HOME scaleMaternal depression trajectories
 Martin-Biggers, 2018 [101]550 2-5y  CHAOS short formMaternal eating behaviours; weight status; health status
 Thomas, 2016 [104]42 32wkse  CHAOS long formMaternal depression, fatigue, and sleep
 Whitesell, 2018 [105]167 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 m  DISCORDParent sleep
Hormone [60, 106,107,108,109,110,111,112]
 Blair, 2013 [106]1292 2, 7, 24, & 36 mo, 5y Interview/ observationCortisol and ANS activity
 Chen, 2010 [107]50 9-18y CHAOS long formHC as mediator in the relationship between low SES and cortisol profiles
 Doom, 2018 [112]242 35–62, 38–85, 84-122 m CHAOS long formDiurnal cortisol levels in response to social stress test
 Laurent, 2014 [60]200 9 m, 18 m, 27 m, 4.5y, 6y  CHAOS short formDevelopmental stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity
 Lumeng, 2014 [108]331 3-4y CHAOS long formMorning cortisol levels
 Miller, 2013 [109]34 3-4y CHAOS long formGut biomarkers
 O’Brien, 2013 [110]135 18-66y  CHAOS short formStress
 Schreier, 2014 [111]244 13-16y  CHAOS long formInflammatory profile
Physical Health, Health Behaviours & Communication Disorders [13, 52, 82, 96, 101, 105, 108, 113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124]
Health/Disease/Disorder Outcomes
  Appelhans, 2014 [113]103 6-13y CHAOS long formHC as mediator in relationship between sleep duration and child weight
  Chae, 2016 [114]125 Mean 12.6y  CHAOS long formHbA1c
  Dush, 2013 [115]3288 3y, 5y Interview/ observationChild health
  Khatiwada, 2018 [118]401 Infants; followed during first 12 mo  CHAOS long formWeight status
  Kraft, 2014 [117]69 Mean 3.7y  CHAOS long formStuttering severity
  Levin, 2013 [116]104 1-13y  CHAOS long formHbA1c
  Lumeng, 2014 [108]331 3-4y CHAOS long formOverweight
  Martin-Biggers, 2018 [101]550 2-5y  CHAOS short formHealth status; weight status
  Tucker, 2018 [82]238 Followed between 10th grade (mean at baseline 15.59y) and 12th grade CHAOS short formPhysical health symptoms; HC as moderator in relationship between hostile parenting and physical health symptoms
Diet & Dietary Behaviours
  Asta, 2016 [119]209 21, 27, & 33 m CHAOS (not specified)Eating in the absence of hunger
  Goulding, 2015 [120]287 4-8y CHAOS long formMaternal feeding goals
  Martin-Biggers, 2018 [101]550 2-5y  CHAOS short formFood-related behaviours
Sleep
  Bartel, 2016 [121]1402 12-19y  CHAOS short formSleep
  Billows, 2009 [122]217 13-18y  CHAOS long formSleep
  Boles, 2017 [13]72 Mean 4.7y CHAOS long formSleep; HC as a mediator in relationship between behaviour and sleep outcomes.
  Gregory, 2005 [52]6612 3y, 4y  CHAOS short formSleep; HC as mediator relationship between sleep problems and anxiety
  Spilsbury, 2017 [96]26 11-12yd  CHAOS long formSleep
  Whitesell, 2018 [105]167 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 m  DISCORDSleep
Other Health Behaviours/Outcomes
  Brown, 2010 [123]70 4–7.5y CHAOS long formTV viewing behaviours in a laboratory setting
  Pesch, 2015 [124]278 4-8y CHAOS long formMaternal perceptions about physical activity.
  1. C/O Cross-sectional/other, L Longitudinal, HC Household Chaos, EF Executive function, CP Conduct problems, CU Callous-unemotional traits, ANS Autonomic nervous system
  2. aAge for cross-sectional/other study type presented as range (preferential; based on inclusion criteria), mean (if range not given), or age group (if specific age not provided; when age group is used the country where the study took place is also included, as definitions of age groups differ between countries); for longitudinal studies age at each follow-up was provided where available for range, mean, or age group
  3. bIf multiple selected, then cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses conducted. CHAOS short- and long-form refer to the short-form [23] and long-form [22] versions of the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (CHAOS)
  4. cTemperament-parenting-interactions = interactions between child temperament and parenting (i.e. maternal negativity and positivity)
  5. dReported as longitudinal but conducted as a 14-week laboratory sleep study
  6. eAge of the child