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Table 4 The relationship between the socio-demographic and health-related characteristics of survey respondents and their prompted cancer risk factor awareness (linear regression)

From: Cancer symptom and risk factor awareness in Malaysia: findings from a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Multiple linear regression
Mean (SD)Difference in mean (95% CI)pAdjusted differnce in meana (95% CI)p
Gender
 Male7.4 (2.7)Reference Reference0.716
 Female7.5 (2.8)0.16 (− 0.09; 0.41)0.201− 0.05 (− 0.33; 0.23)
Age
 40–49 years7.6 (2.6)Reference Reference 
 50–59 years7.1 (3.0)− 0.57 (− 0.86, − 0.27)< 0.001−0.44 (− 0.74; − 0.14)0.003
 60 + years7.1 (2.8)−0.58 (− 1.00; − 0.17)0.006−0.27 (− 0.70; 0.16)0.22
Ethnicity
 Malay8.0 (2.5)Reference Reference 
 Chinese6.8 (3.0)−1.23 (− 1.49; −0.97)< 0.001−1.36 (− 1.62; − 1.10)< 0.001
 Indian7.4 (2.3)− 0.60 (− 1.05; − 0.15)0.008−0.79 (− 1.24; − 0.34)< 0.001
 Others7.0 (2.6)−1.03 (− 1.76; − 0.29)0.006−0.79 (− 1.53; − 0.06)0.034
Education level
 No formal education4.9 (3.5)Reference Reference 
 Primary7.2 (3.0)2.31 (1.22; 3.40)< 0.0012.44 (1.34; 3.55)< 0.001
 Secondary7.4 (2.8)2.6 (1.56; 3.60)< 0.0012.69 (1.61; 3.76)< 0.001
 Tertiary7.7 (2.5)2.81 (1.78; 3.84)< 0.0012.95 (1.85; 4.05)< 0.001
Marital Status
 Married7.5 (2.8)Reference Reference 
 Not married7.5 (2.6)0.03 (−0.35; 0.41)0.868−0.20 (−0.58; 0.17)0.291
Transport ownership
 None7.3 (3.2)Reference Reference 
 Yes, one7.5 (2.7)0.24 (−0.35; 0.83)0.428−0.28 (− 0.89; 0.33)0.369
 Yes, more than one7.4 (2.7)0.15 (−0.45; 0.75)0.633−0.56 (−1.19; 0.07)0.079
Smoking
 Current smoker7.0 (2.8)Reference Reference 
 Ex-smoker7.5 (3.1)0.45 (−0.13; 1.02)0.1280.35 (−0.21; 0.92)0.218
 Never smoked7.6 (2.7)0.56 (0.24; 0.88)0.0010.68 (0.34; 1.03)< 0.001
Self-related health
 Fair to very poor7.3 (2.8)Reference Reference 
 Good to very good7.5 (2.7)0.26 (−0.02; 0.53)0.0660.23 (− 0.04; 0.50)0.095
Access to doctor
 Easy7.5 (2.7)Reference Reference 
 Difficult7.3 (2.9)−0.11 (−0.73; 0.50)0.719−0.16; (− 0.76; 0.45)0.612
Experience with cancer
 Yes7.3 (3.0)Reference Reference 
 No7.5 (2.7)0.18 (−0.13; 0.49)0.249−0.02 (− 0.29; 0.33)0.902
  1. aModel contains gender, age groups (in categories as shown in Table 1), ethnicity, education level, marital status, household ownership of motorised vehicle, smoking status, self-reported health, access to doctors and experience of cancer