Skip to main content

Table 3 The relationship between the socio-demographic and health-related characteristics of survey respondents and their prompted cancer signs and symptoms awareness (linear regression)

From: Cancer symptom and risk factor awareness in Malaysia: findings from a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Multiple linear regression
Mean (SD)Difference in mean (95% CI)pAdjusted difference in meana (95% CI)p
Gender
 Male5.6 (3.3)Reference Reference0.297
 Female6.0 (3.2)0.45 (0.15; 0.74)0.0030.18 (−0.15; 0.51)
Age
 40–49 years5.9 (3.2)Reference Reference 
 50–59 years5.9 (3.3)0.04 (− 0.32; 0.39)0.8410.11 (− 0.25; 0.46)0.556
 60 + years4.9 (3.5)− 0.99 (−1.48; − 0.50)< 0.001−0.63 (−1.14; − 0.12)0.016
Ethnicity
 Malay5.9 (3.2)Reference Reference 
 Chinese5.7 (3.2)−0.19 (− 0.50; 0.12)0.238− 0.32 (− 0.63; − 0.01)0.044
 Indian5.9 (3.4)− 0.02 (− 0.56; 0.52)0.949−0.14 (− 0.67; 0.39)0.609
 Others4.3 (3.2)− 1.60 (−2.48; − 0.71)< 0.001−2.01 (−2.09; − 0.26)0.011
Education level
 No formal education2.0 (2.1)Reference Reference 
 Primary4.6 (3.5)2.55 (1.27; 3.83)< 0.0012.32 (1.00; 3.64)< 0.001
 Secondary5.8 (3.3)3.76 (2.57; 4.96)< 0.0013.37 (2.09; 4.65)< 0.001
 Tertiary6.2 (2.9)4.15 (2.94; 5.35)< 0.0013.72 (2.41; 5.02)< 0.001
Marital Status
 Married5.8 (3.3)Reference Reference 
 Not married5.4 (2.8)−0.43 (−0.88; 0.01)0.057−0.60 (−1.04; − 0.15)0.009
Transport ownership
 None4.2 (3.5)Reference Reference 
 Yes, one5.8 (3.3)1.60 (0.91; 2.30)< 0.0010.60 (− 0.12; 1.33)0.102
 Yes, more than one5.9 (3.1)1.68 (0.97; 2.39)< 0.0010.47 (− 0.28; 1.22)0.219
Smoking
 Current smoker4.9 (3.2)Reference Reference 
 Ex-smoker5.9 (3.2)1.01 (0.33; 1.68)0.0040.98 (0.31; 1.66)0.004
 Never smoked6.0 (3.2)1.06 (0.68; 1.43)< 0.0010.89 (0.48; 1.31)< 0.001
Self-related health
 Fair to very poor5.9 (3.3)Reference Reference 
 Good to very good5.7 (3.2)−0.13 (− 0.46; 0.20)0.433− 0.31 (− 0.63; 0.01)0.060
 Access to doctor     
 Easy5.8 (3.2)Reference Reference 
 Difficult5.0 (3.5)−0.85 (−1.57; − 0.12)0.022− 0.54 (− 1.26; 0.18)0.143
Experience with cancer
 Yes6.1 (3.0)Reference Reference 
 No5.7 (3.2)−0.42 (− 0.79; − 0.06)0.022− 0.38 (− 0.75; − 0.02)0.041
  1. aModel contains gender, age groups (in categories as shown in Table 1), ethnicity, education level, marital status, household ownership of motorised vehicle, smoking status, self-reported health, access to doctors and experience of cancer