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Table 2 Knowledge about each cancer sign/ symptom and risk factor (prompted and unprompted awareness)

From: Cancer symptom and risk factor awareness in Malaysia: findings from a nationwide cross-sectional study

 Yes (n) prompted%Yes (n) unprompted%
Signs and symptoms
 Unexplained lump or swelling141274.5673.5
 Persistent unexplained pain121063.9593.1
 Unexplained bleeding124265.5211.1
 A persistent cough or hoarseness104955.4140.7
 A change in bowel or bladder habits95350.390.5
 A persistent difficulty swallowing87346.100
 A change in appearance of a mole84744.700
 A sore that does not heal87346.150.3
 Unexplained night sweats50026.400
 Unexplained weight loss109057.5502.6
 Unexplained tiredness89047623.3
Risk factors
 Smoking168188.7
 Exposure to another person’s smoke164486.8
 Drinking more than 1 unit of alcohol a day114960.6
 Eating less than 5 portions of fruits and vegetables a day99452.5
 Eating red or processed meat once a day or more109958
 Being obese108057
 Getting sunburnt more than once as a child76540.4
 Being over 70 years old80142.3
 Having a close relative with cancer124565.7
 Infection with Human Papillomavirus100152.8
 Not doing much physical activity112559.4
 Exposure to radiation such as radioactive materials, x-rays or radon154781.6