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Table 5 Maximum likelihood estimates of Partial proportional odds model

From: Determinants of under-nutrition among children under five years of age in Ethiopia

PredictorsModerate and severe undernourished versus nourished
CoefficientStd. ErrorZP > |z|Odds ratio95% CI for OR
Region
 Afar− 0.0600.114− 0.530.5970.942(0.754, 1.177)
 Amhara0.3280.1013.250.0011.389(1.140, 1.693)
 Oromia−0.3720.096−3.860.0000.689(0.571, 0.833)
 Somali−0.6700.108−6.210.0000.512(0.414, 0.632)
 Benishangul0.1170.1121.050.2951.124(0.903, 1.401)
 SNNPR−0.3550.100−3.540.0000.701(0.576, 0.853)
 Gambela−0.7150.127−5.650.0000.489(0.382, 0.627)
 Harari−0.2130.127−1.680.0920.808(0.630, 1.036)
 Addis Ababa−0.8120.173−4.690.0000.444(0.316, 0.624)
 Dire Dawa−0.0970.138−0.700.4850.908(0.692, 1.191)
 Residence
 Rural−0.1380.104−1.320.1860.871(0.711, 1.069)
Mother’s education
 Primary−0.1000.061−1.620.1050.905(0.803, 1.021)
 Secondary &>−0.5470.116−4.720.0000.579(0.461, 0.726)
Drinking water
 Unimproved0.1020.0512.010.0451.108(1.002, 1.224)
House hold size
 5–90.0540.0690.780.4341.055(0.922, 1.207)
 10 and more0.2080.1231.700.0891.232(0.969, 1.567)
No children < 5 years
 2−0.1440.076−1.900.0570.866(0.746, 1.004)
 3 and more0.1500.0552.720.0071.162(1.043, 1.294)
Wealth index
 Poorer0.0820.0701.180.2381.085(0.947, 1.244)
 Middle−0.2040.076−2.670.0080.815(0.702, 0.947)
 Richer−0.4530.083−5.440.0000.636(0.540, 0.748)
 Richest−0.4470.113−3.960.0000.639(0.512, 0.798)
Anemia
 Anemic0.1970.0503.950.0001.218(1.105, 1.344)
Husband’s Education
 Primary− 0.0870.059−1.470.1410.916(0.816, 1.030)
 Secondary &>−0.1710.086−2.000.0450.924(0.769, 1.109)
Birth order
 2–3−0.0590.074−0.790.4280.943(0.816, 1.090)
 4–5−0.0350.091−0.380.7010.966(0.809, 1.154)
 6 and more−0.0790.093−0.850.3950.924(0.769, 1.109)
Multiple birth
 1st of multiple0.7250.2103.450.0012.066(1.369, 3.117)
 2nd of multiple0.7960.2223.580.0002.216(1.430, 3.427)
Sex
 Female−0.1100.049−2.260.0240.895(0.814, 0.985)
Age of child in month
 6–110.5830.1234.740.0001.792(1.408, 2.281)
 12–231.6460.10715.370.0005.185(4.203, 6.395)
 24–352.0570.10719.190.0007.819(6.338, 9.647)
 36–471.9800.10718.440.0007.244(5.869, 8.941)
 48–591.8590.10717.330.0006.415(5.199, 7.916)
Had fever
 Yes0.2370.0773.060.0021.267(1.089, 1.475)
Had cough
 Yes−0.0190.074−0.260.7930.981(0.849, 1.133)
Mother’s age at 1st birth
 20–34−0.1100.049−2.240.0250.895(0.813, 0.986)
 35–490.2960.5620.530.5991.344(0.447, 4.046)
BMI of mother
 Normal−0.3490.055−6.360.0000.705(0.633, 0.785)
 Overweight−0.9390.106−8.870.0000.391(0.318, 0.481)
Constant−0.8050.189−4.260.0000.447(0.309, 0.647)
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