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Table 1 Unadjusted and adjusted associations between baseline characteristics and ART prescription and viral suppression among people with HIV and opioid use disorder in Vietnam, 2015–2019

From: HIV care continuum characteristics among people with opioid use disorder and HIV in Vietnam: baseline results from the BRAVO study

 All participants
(n = 283)
Prescribed ART
n = 191/273 (70.0%)
Virally suppressed
n = 189/283 (66.8%)
n (%)Unadjusted
n (%)
Adjusted
aOR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
n (%)
Adjusted
aOR (95% CI)
Mean Age (SD)38.3 (6.1)p = 0.102
38.8 (6.0)
1.02 (0.97, 1.07)p = 0.02
38.8 (6.0)
1.04 (0.98, 1.10)
Gender (male)274 (96.8%)
Greater than 9th grade education p = 0.86p = 0.84
 Yes115 (40.6%)77 (40.3%) 76 (40.2%) 
 No168 (59.4%)114 (59.7%) 113 (60.0%) 
Employed p = 0.31p = 0.12
 Yes130 (45.9%)92 (48.2%) 93 (49.2%) 
 No153 (54.1%)99 (51.8%) 96 (50.8%) 
Married p = 0.0032.83 (1.51, 5.34)p = 0.0041.44 (0.69, 3.03)
 Yes109 (38.5%)85 (44.5%) 84 (44.4%) 
 No174 (61.5%)106 (55.5%) 105 (55.6%) 
History of arrest (n = 280) 
 Yes234 (82.7%)    
 No46 (16.3%)    
Lifetime number of arrests (n = 282)2.2 (1.7)p = 0.13 2.3 (1.7)p = 0.17 2.3 (1.7)
History of 06 rehabilitation p = 0.031.58 (0.88, 2.85)p = 0.071.14 (0.55, 2.34)
 Yes172 (60.8%)125 (65.4%) 112 (59.3%) 
 No111 (39.2%)66 (34.6%) 67 (35.4%) 
Currently on ART (n = 273) p < 0.00125.4 (12.13,
 Yes191 (67.5%)  168 (88.9%)53.11)
 No92 (32.5%)  17 (9.0%) 
Mean Years since HIV diagnosis (SD)7.4 (5.7)p = < 0.0001
8.4 (5.4)
1.12 (1.06, 1.19)p = 0.002
8.1 (5.5)
0.99 (0.93, 1.06)
Mean CD4 cell count (SD)405.0 (224.1)
Daily tobacco use p = 0.24p = 0.52
 Yes232 (82.0%)154 (80.6%) 153 (81.0%) 
 No51 (18.0%)37 (19.4%) 36 (19.0%) 
Risky alcohol use (n = 266) p = 0.14p = 0.41
 Yes90 (31.8%)56 (29.3%) 53 (28.0%) 
 No193 (68.2%)126 (66.0%) 130 (68.8%) 
Positive UDS for Methamphetaminesa p = 0.070.55 (0.28, 1.09)p = 0.080.74 (0.32, 1.70)
 Yes53 (18.7%)31 (16.2%) 30 (15.9%) 
 No230 (81.3%)160 (83.8%) 159 (84.1%) 
Positive UDS for methadone 
 Yes4 (1.4%)    
 No279 (98.6%)    
Positive UDS for buprenorphine 
 Yes1 (0.4%)    
 No282 (99.6%)    
DASS Anxiety Sub-score (SD)4.5 (8.3)p = 0.77
4.42 (9.8)
p = 0.99
4.48 (9.8)
DASS Stress Sub-score (SD)5.4 (12.1)p = 0.69
5.7 (14.4)
p = 0.57
5.7 (14.5)
DASS Depression Sub-score (SD)6.1 (10.2)p = 0.02
5.1 (7.3)
0.97 (0.94, 0.9963)p = 0.07
5.3 (7.4)
0.99 (0.96, 1.03)
  1. aIncludes methamphetamines and amphetamines
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