Skip to main content

Table 5 Psychological resources at age 18 and less than 12 months of passive labour market participation at age 25–29

From: Psychological resources in adolescence and the association with labour market participation in early adulthood: a prospective cohort study

  Total (n = 2173) Males (n = 1000) Females (n = 1173)
Crude1 Model 1a Model 2b Crude1 Model 1a Model 2b Crude1 Model 1a Model 2b
Total
 Sense of coherence
  Low (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
  Medium 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 1.4 (1.0–1.8) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 1.8 (1.1–2.8) 1.4 (0.9–2.3) 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 1.2 (0.8–1.8)
  High 2.0 (1.4–2.7) 2.0 (1.4–2.8) 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 2.5 (1.5–4.2) 2.4 (1.4–4.1) 1.7 (0.9–3.1) 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 1.8 (1.1–2.7) 1.4 (0.9–2.3)
 Mastery
  Low (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
  Medium 2.4 (1.7–3.3) 2.3 (1.6–3.1) 1.9 (1.3–2.7) 3.2 (1.9–5.4) 3.1 (1.8–5.2) 2.7 (1.5–3.8) 1.9 (1.3–2.9) 1.8 (1.2–2.8) 1.5 (1.0–2.3)
  High 2.4 (1.7–3.3) 2.2 (1.6–3.1) 1.7 (1.1–2.5) 2.9 (1.8–4.9) 2.5 (1.5–4.2) 1.9 (1.1–3.5) 2.0 (1.3–3.1) 2.0 (1.3–3.2) 1.5 (0.9–2.5)
 Self-esteem
  Low (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
  Medium 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 1.1 (0.8–1.7) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
  High 1.8 (1.3–2.4) 1.7 (1.2–2.3) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 2.0 (1.2–3.2) 1.8 (1.1–2.9) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 1.0 (0.7–1.7)
 Equivalized household income
  Low (< 11,072 €) (ref.)    (ref.)    (ref.)   
  Medium (11,072–13,489 €) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)    1.3 (0.8–2.2)    0.9 (0.6–1.3)   
  High (> 13,489 €) 1.4 (1.0–1.9)    1.6 (1.0–2.6)    1.3 (0.8–1.9)   
 Parents highest education
  Primary (< 10 years) (ref.)    (ref.)    (ref.)   
  Secondary (10–12 years) 2.2 (1.5–3.2)    3.3 (1.8–5.8)    1.7 (1.0–2.7)   
  Tertiary (> 12 years) 2.3 (1.6–3.3)    3.3 (1.8–5.8)    1.7 (1.0–2.9)   
Depressive symptoms, age 18 0.9 (0.8–0.9)    0.9 (0.8–1.0)    0.9 (0.8–0.9)   
 Self-rated health, age 18
  Poor (ref.)    (ref.)    (ref.)   
  Good 1.9 (1.5–2.5)    2.3 (1.5–3.5)    1.7 (1.2–2.3)   
 Negative life-events, age 15
  0 events (ref.)    (ref.)    (ref.)   
  1–2 events 0.6 (0.4–0.8)    0.4 (0.3–0.7)    0.7 (0.5–1.1)   
  3–6 events 0.5 (0.3–0.9)    0.4 (0.2–1.1)    0.5 (0.3–1.1)   
  1. 1: crude estimates for all included variables
  2. a: model 1: psychological resources (sense of coherence, mastery and self-esteem) individually adjusted for equivalized household income and parent’s highest education
  3. b: model 2: psychological resources individually adjusted for all included covariates
  4. c: confidence intervals (95%) presented for all models