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Table 3 Prevalence of Low HGS by sex, according to health conditions among older people

From: Factors associated with low handgrip strength in older people: data of the Study of Chronic Diseases (Edoc-I)

VariablesOverallMenWomen
Low HGS (≤P20)Low HGS (≤P20)Low HGS (≤P20)
nN%χ2nN%χ2nN%χ2
Waist circumference a   0.652   0.249   0.956
 Normal106262717.5 57156117.6 49106617.2 
 Altered60136216.4 926113.2 51110117.5 
Waist-to-hip ratio a   0.200   0.629   0.187
 Normal65164715.4 39108215.9 2656514.6 
 Altered100231918.5 2671718.0 74160218.8 
BMI*   < 0.001   0.035   < 0.001
 Low weight4192631.8 1638930.9 2553732.4 
 Eutrophic56140015.8 2677115.9 3062915.8 
 Overweight67159914.2 2362513.5 4497414.6 
Self-assessment of health   0.080   0.077   0.540
 Very Good /Good /Regular135323116.4 54148315.4 81174917.3 
 Bad /Very bad3482222.3 1233926.6 2248320.0 
Assessment of current health in relation to that of the previous 12 months a   0.011   0.006   0.398
 Better /Equal101239115.1 38104013.3 63135216.8 
 Worse68166222.2 2878226.0 4088019.7 
Assessment of health in comparison with people of the same age a   < 0.001   0.005   0.020
 Better /Equal119281415.2 46122714.1 73158716.2 
 Worse44109027.5 1750728.4 2758326.8 
Dependence in ADL a   0.035   < 0.001   0.830
 No139333816.3 49136314.5 90197517.9 
 Yes2969224.5 1745932.4 1223316.6 
Dependence on IADL a   < 0.001   < 0.001   0.032
 No59149212.3 2469311.3 3579913.3 
 Yes109253722.8 42112924.0 67140821.9 
Depression in the GDS*   0.094   0.246   0.269
 No104250615.9 44121315.4 60129320.5 
 Yes64151420.3 2157620.1 4393816.4 
Insomnia a   0.024   0.347   0.015
 No97231015.0 45122515.5 52108514.4 
 Yes72174421.9 2159719.9 51114723.0 
Musculoskeletal complaints   0.733   0.701   0.335
 No70172216.8 41109917.4 2962315.7 
 Yes99233217.7 2572315.8 74160918.8 
Cardiovascular event   0.203   0.509   0.171
 No125299216.5 50136816.0 75162516.9 
 Yes44106120.2 1645419.2 2860721.1 
Anemia a   < 0.001   < 0.001   0.022
 No107257313.8 35101011.9 72156315.4 
 Yes56135530.3 3079135.1 2656425.3 
Diabetes a       0.046   0.191
 No138327717.0 51139315.3 87188418.4 
 Yes2871218.1 1440724.0 1430513.6 
Hypertension a   0.190   0.195   0.733
 No48116520.0 2258521.1 2658018.9 
 Yes120286716.5 43121615.3 77165117.6 
Hypercholesterolemia a   0.261   0.875   0.107
 No86205618.3 39103916.8 47101720.1 
 Yes78189115.7 2676216.3 52112915.3 
Altered HDL cholesterol a   0.090   0.404   0.176
 No105257915.7 45126915.7 60131115.8 
 Yes58134919.8 2053219.6 3881719.9 
Hypertriglyceridemia a   0.033   0.054   0.287
 No103248019.5 47125619.9 56122419.1 
 Yes62149114.1 1854412.0 4494615.6 
Dyslipidemia a   0.280   0.265   0.563
 No3895120.4 2259520.7 1635619.9 
 Yes127302016.2 43120615.1 84181417.0 
Metabolic syndrome a   0.080   0.386   0.173
 No91221318.9 3598918.5 56122419.2 
 Yes71169014.8 2979014.8 4290014.9 
  1. amissing; n = number of observations in the sample; N = population inference based on weights and sampling design; % = estimated prevalence based on weighted frequencies; χ2 = p-value of the Pearson chi-square test