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Table 2 Prevalence of Low HGS by sex, according to sociodemographic characteristics and life habits among older people

From: Factors associated with low handgrip strength in older people: data of the Study of Chronic Diseases (Edoc-I)

VariablesOverallMenWomen
Low HGS (≤P20)Low HGS (≤P20)Low HGS (≤P20)
nN%χ2nN%χ2nN%χ2
Total169405417.366182216.7103223217.8
Age (age group)   0.592   0.751   0.517
 60–69 years old78222816.6 31106116.9 47116616.4 
 70–79 years old58116817,5 2146815.2 3770019.4 
  ≥ 80 years old3365819,7 1429219.0 1936520.4 
Referred skin color   0.705   0.509   0.810
 White43102318.3 1849319.7 2553017.1 
 Non-white126303117.0 48132915.8 78170218.0 
Marital status a   0.122   0.087   0.587
 With partner53132314.7 2873613.7 2558716.2 
 Without partner115271219.0 38108620.0 77162618.4 
Education   0.045   0.155   0.137
 Illiterate71167820.7 2773319.5 4494421.8 
 Elementary School80195517.3 3496017.7 4699516.9 
 High School1842111.0 51298.0 1329313.2 
Physical activity in leisure a   0.007   0.100   0.056
 Active61556.9 3887.6 3676.0 
 Sedentary161385718.6 61169317.7 100216419.4 
Occupational Physical Activity or in Displacement   0.007   0.052   0.014
 Active57141513.3 1953112.2 3888414.1 
 Sedentary112263820.6 47129119.7 65134721.6 
Screen time per day a   0.984   0.974   0.962
 Up to 3 h119292717.1 47133416.3 72159217.8 
 More than 3 h46103417.1 1641316.4 3062017.7 
Smoking   0,073   0.065   0.417
 Non-smoker2050011.7 92589.9 1124214.4 
 Smoker, ex-smoker149355318.6 57156418.9 92198918.4 
Alcohol consumption a   0,193   0.234   0.690
 No152358017.8 55149711.0 97208314.7 
 Yes925511.8 618217.4 37318.0 
  1. amissing; n = number of observations in the sample; N = population inference based on the sample weights; % = estimated prevalence based on weighted frequencies; χ 2 = p-value of the Pearson Chi-square test