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Table 3 Stratified analyses of association between PM2.5 concentrations and change in levels of fasting glucose and lipid profiles

From: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter is associated with changes in fasting glucose and lipid profiles: a nationwide cohort study

 Mean difference of individual’s concentration, mg/dL (95% CI)Quartiles of PM2.5 levelsP for trendsPinter
Q1Q2Q3Q4
CCI      0.207
 0Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.839 ± 1.79024.888 ± 0.57426.609 ± 0.51330.563 ± 2.221  
FBG0.892
(0.491–1.293)
0.940
(0.536–1.345)
1.082
(0.675–1.490)
1.928
(1.520–2.337)
< 0.001 
LDL-C1.437
(0.703–2.171)
1.924
(1.185–2.664)
2.077
(1.332–2.823)
2.934
(2.183–3.684)
0.006 
 ≥1Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.779 ± 1.83424.972 ± 0.62126.890 ± 0.70130.979 ± 2.148  
FBG0.550
(0.283–0.816)
0.975
(0.702–1.249)
0.687
(0.422–0.953)
1.180
(0.886–1.475)
0.015 
LDL-C0.341
(−0.086–0.768)
0.618
(0.180–1.056)
0.316
(− 0.109–0.741)
1.384
(0.910–1.857)
0.010 
FBG at baseline, mg/dL      0.152
 < 126Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.779 ± 1.83224.972 ± 0.61926.887 ± 0.69930.970 ± 2.139  
FBG1.711
(1.506–1.915)
2.120
(1.910–2.329)
1.877
(1.673–2.080)
2.636
(2.409–2.862)
< 0.001 
LDL-C0.825
(0.395–1.255)
0.947
(0.507–1.388)
0.689
(0.261–1.117)
1.767
(1.289–2.244)
0.022 
 ≥126Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.776 ± 1.86624.972 ± 0.65026.932 ± 0.72931.107 ± 2.290  
FBG−18.051
(−20.907--15.196)
−17.233
(−20.279--14.187)
−17.943
(−20.826--15.061)
−21.123
(−24.260--17.986)
0.176 
LDL-C−7.618
(−9.899--5.337)
−4.763
(−7.186--2.340)
−5.667
(−7.985--3.350)
−4.444
(−6.956--1.931)
0.105 
LDL-C at baseline, mg/dL      0.052
 < 160Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.786 ± 1.83224.970 ± 0.62126.885 ± 0.69930.964 ± 2.137  
FBG0.592
(0.314–0.871)
1.075
(0.791–1.360)
0.759
(0.482–1.036)
1.237
(0.930–1.544)
0.018 
LDL-C3.519
(3.127–3.910)
3.721
(3.321–4.120)
3.540
(3.150–3.930)
4.605
(4.172–5.037)
0.002 
 ≥160Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.731 ± 1.84524.993 ± 0.61726.930 ± 0.71531.157 ± 2.279  
FBG0.295
(−0.602–1.192)
0.034
(− 0.934–1.002)
0.068
(− 0.830–0.967)
0.342
(− 0.694–1.378)
0.986 
LDL-C−30.200
(− 32.319--28.082)
−31.971
(− 34.252--29.690)
− 30.564
(− 32.685--28.443)
− 32.279
(− 34.729--29.829)
0.366 
Physical activitya      0.032
 ActiveMean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.726 ± 1.84824.883 ± 0.57826.842 ± 0.73331.094 ± 2.263  
FBG0.612
(0.006–1.218)
1.354
(0.691–2.017)
0.613
(0.019–1.207)
1.092
(0.409–1.775)
0.629 
LDL-C0.422
(−0.490–1.334)
0.748
(− 0.246–1.742)
0.380
(− 0.513–1.274)
1.425
(0.397–2.454)
0.271 
 InactiveMean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.794 ± 1.83024.973 ± 0.62126.884 ± 0.62130.949 ± 2.117  
FBG0.534
(0.238–0.830)
0.854
(0.550–1.157)
0 .738
(0.444–1.032)
1.210
(0.883–1.536)
0.009 
LDL-C0.322
(−0.161–0.805)
0.577
(0.083–1.070)
0.328
(− 0.151–0.807)
1.353
(0.819–1.887)
0.021 
Age, years      0.004
 < 60Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.795 ± 1.81924.969 ± 0.61226.859 ± 0.68630.953 ± 2.133  
FBG0.846
(0.530–1.163)
1.143
(0.823–1.464)
1.049
(0.736–1.362)
1.130
(0.786–1.475)
0.301 
LDL-C1.932
(1.413–2.452)
2.085
(1.560–2.610)
1.606
(1.092–2.120)
2.512
(1.945–3.078)
0.377 
 ≥60Mean level, μg/m3 ± SD21.754 ± 1.85824.977 ± 0.63726.941 ± 0.72331.024 ± 2.176  
FBG0.049
(−0.426–0.524)
0.707
(0.207–1.208)
0.096
(−0.383–0.574)
1.259
(0.717–1.802)
0.014 
LDL-C−2.344
(−3.081--1.607)
−1.810
(−2.587--1.033)
−1.824
(− 2.568--1.080)
−0.530
(− 1.374–0.315)
0.004 
  1. Note: Models were adjusted for age, sex, income level, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, BMI physical activity, and CCI score. PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; n, number, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, Pinter, P value for the interaction terms
  2. a Participants were divided into active or inactive group based on the total minutes of each level of physical activities. Active group was specified as performing for ≥30 min in a day at least 5 days a week in moderate activities, or for ≥20 min in a day at least 3 days a week in vigorous activities