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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population according to quartiles of each PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 levels at individual’s residential districts

From: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter is associated with changes in fasting glucose and lipid profiles: a nationwide cohort study

 Whole
NHIS-NSC
All study populationQuartiles of PM10–2.5 levelsP valueQuartiles of PM2.5 levelsP value
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4
Mean level of PM10–2.5,
μg/m3 ± SD
 22.81
±4.64
17.59
±3.67
21.92
±0.66
24.34
±0.83
28.14
±3.17
< 0.00122.12
±5.49
23.24
±2.68
23.85
±3.87
21.86
±5.73
< 0.001
Mean level of PM2.5,
μg/m3 ± SD
 25.94 ± 3.5625.88
±4.18
25.23
±1.97
26.30
±2.83
26.43
±4.47
< 0.00121.78
± 1.83
24.97
± 0.62
26.89
± 0.70
30.98
± 2.15
< 0.001
Population, n1,006,48185,86923,35422,29219,11421,109 22,71721,62222,95918,571 
Men, %50.0250.7750.6650.7951.0350.640.85850.2550.950.4551.650.026
Age, %      < 0.001    < 0.001
 0–19 years22.21          
 20–39 years29.2625.0521.9726.5126.3225.76 22.7628.0126.222.97 
 40–64 years36.8760.3762.7160.0858.9059.39 62.257.2459.1463.28 
 ≥65 years11.6614.5915.3213.4014.7814.85 15.0414.7514.6613.75 
Income level, %      < 0.001    < 0.001
 Lowest31.8527.4028.4226.6127.3327.19 27.5725.9126.629.93 
 Lower middle28.5728.7728.4428.5828.7029.41 28.3427.3729.0130.64 
 Higher middle25.1828.2528.7728.1827.3728.53 28.9427.528.6227.83 
 Highest14.4115.5714.3716.6216.6114.87 15.1519.2315.7811.6 
Smoking status, %      0.164    < 0.001
 Never smoker62.1062.8262.3763.0062.6763.28 62.8663.2263.4761.52 
 Ex-smoker14.5215.6415.6315.8815.4615.55 15.8316.1415.5714.89 
 Current smoker23.3821.5422.0021.1321.8721.17 21.3120.6320.9623.6 
Alcohol consumption, per week, %      < 0.001    < 0.001
 None53.0351.9353.3950.8950.9052.35 52.349.8151.6254.33 
 1–2 times33.2034.7933.7135.6835.6334.30 34.3736.2835.0133.33 
 3–4 times9.749.629.189.889.739.71 9.6710.179.848.63 
 ≥5 times4.023.663.723.553.743.64 3.663.743.543.71 
Physical activitya, %      0.055    0.053
 Active30.0020.5321.0020.3419.9820.70 21.1620.3320.2420.34 
 Inactive70.0079.4779.0079.6680.0279.30 78.8479.6779.7679.66 
BMIb, kg/m2,
mean ± SD
23.74 ± 3.2623.64 ± 3.1523.64
±3.12
23.62
±3.17
23.70
±3.16
23.60
±3.15
0.01123.69 ± 3.1523.62 ± 3.1923.65 ± 3.1623.58 ± 3.080.002
Underweight, %3.863.713.373.923.693.890.0013.354.173.793.52< 0.001
Normal, %38.9939.9840.5239.8439.3140.15 39.8139.739.7740.78 
Overweight, %24.6025.3325.3825.5324.9125.43 25.2925.0225.1925.9 
Obese, %32.5530.9830.7430.7132.0930.53 31.5431.1131.2529.8 
BP, mmHg,
mean ± SD
 Systolic BP122.50
± 15.15
121.76
± 14.90
122.23
±14.93
121.51
±14.95
122.03
±15.11
121.29
±14.61
< 0.001121.60
± 14.66
121.48
± 15.03
121.69
± 15.00
122.38
± 14.91
0.001
 Diastolic BP76.19
± 10.11
75.56
± 10.08
75.71
±9.96
75.40
±10.16
75.64
±10.29
75.51
±9.93
0.00575.52
± 9.95
75.45
± 10.30
75.57
± 10.11
75.73
± 9.94
0.045
FBG, mg/dL,
mean ± SD
97.94
± 24.08
97.17
± 22.82
97.24
±23.34
96.86
±21.93
97.12
±22.92
97.48
±23.08
0.03997.63
± 22.55
96.57
± 22.20
97.42
± 22.63
97.02
± 24.06
< 0.001
TC, mg/dL,
mean ± SD
195.15
± 37.05
195.76
± 36.41
195.95
±36.70
195.41
±36.05
195.22
±36.18
196.41
±36.64
0.003196.45
± 36.62
195.28
± 35.99
196.17
± 36.25
194.97
± 36.79
< 0.001
TG, mg/dL,
mean ± SD
132.83
± 92.89
128.58
± 89.37
129.89
±90.65
127.75
±89.27
130.62
±89.85
126.15
±87.52
< 0.001128.03
± 90.00
127.77
± 87.65
127.58
± 88.62
131.43
± 91.43
< 0.001
HDL-C, mg/dL,
mean ± SD
55.84
± 24.43
55.76
± 15.36
55.73
±15.39
55.83
±16.40
55.83
±15.88
55.68
±13.62
0.68755.80
± 15.80
55.69
± 15.56
55.69
± 15.60
55.90
± 14.25
0.435
LDL-C, mg/dL,
mean ± SD
114.06
± 36.04
114.71
± 34.33
114.76
±34.65
114.45
±33.59
113.82
±35.04
115.74
±34.07
< 0.001115.57
± 34.72
114.28
± 33.45
115.55
± 34.71
113.13
± 34.32
< 0.001
CCI, %      < 0.001    < 0.001
 033.8728.8327.0929.0830.2929.17 27.7130.9628.6427.97 
 138.1931.9231.6631.8931.7632.39 31.2331.6932.0232.92 
 ≥227.9439.2541.2539.0337.9538.43 41.0737.3539.3439.11 
  1. Note: PM10–2.5, particulate matter sized 2.5-10 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; NHIS-NSC National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort, n, number, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CCI Charlson comorbidity index
  2. a Participants were divided into active or inactive group based on the total minutes of each level of physical activities. Active group was specified as performing for ≥30 min in a day at least 5 days a week in moderate activities, or for ≥20 min in a day at least 3 days a week in vigorous activities
  3. b Participants were categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese by Asia pacific criteria of World Health Organization