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Table 3 Modelling the effects of spending patterns on mental health outcomes

From: Managing mental health: why we need to redress the balance between healthcare spending and social spending

Coeff (SE)
P-Value
*p < .05
MODEL 1MODEL 2MODEL 3MODEL 4MODEL 5MODEL 6
Health exp−48.0 (40.8) 0.239N/A− 109.4 (48.8) 0.025*128.5 (50.6) 0.011*N/A445.6 (119.0) 0.000*
Social expN/A− 82.1 (17.9) 0.000*N/A− 117.8 (23.2) 0.000*− 77.0 (18.8) 0.000*− 236.0 (46.3) 0.000*
Social exp./ health exp. ratioN/AN/A−4.6 (1.6) 0.004*N/A−1.4 (1.3) 0.2879.1 (3.1) 0.003*
Female to male ratio15.3 (173.0) 0.92985.3 (167.6) 0.61122.5 (174.8) 0.89858.0 (172.3) 0.73645.6 (173.1) 0.79289.4 (171.5) 0.602
Age 15–29− 166.6 (43.0) 0.000*− 159.2 (37.4) 0.000*− 153.9 (43.2) 0.000*−174.4 (42.5) 0.000*− 166.1 (42.7) 0.000*− 204.7 (43.4) 0.000*
Age 30–44− 387.0 (47.9) 0.000*− 355.0 (40.6) 0.000*− 347.4 (48.9) 0.000*− 348.0 (47.2) 0.000*− 352.3 (48.2) 0.000*− 382.0 (48.3) 0.000*
Age 45–64− 238.5 (39.4) 0.000*− 244.7 (35.5) 0.000*− 222.0 (40.3) 0.000*− 245.0 (38.3) 0.000*− 238.8 (39.5) 0.000*− 298.9 (42.2) 0.000*
Age 65 +− 265.9 (45.5) 0.000*− 229.8 (43.2) 0.000*− 220.9 (47.2) 0.000*− 223.9 (44.9) 0.000*− 221.8 (45.9) 0.000*− 268.7 (47.1) 0.000*
Log GDP−5.6 (5.1) 0.271−6.0 (4.7) 0.196−4.8 (5.0) 0.341− 6.8 (5.0) 0.169−6.2 (5.0) 0.213− 6.1 (4.9) 0.212
Unemploy-ment Rate−0.1 (0.1) 0.4800.2 (0.1) 0.1130.2 (0.1) 0.2620.3 (0.1) 0.027*0.3 (0.1) 0.0750.3 (0.1) 0.040*
Year1.5 (0.1) 0.000*1.6 (0.1) 0.000*1.5 (0.1) 0.000*1.6 (0.1) 0.000*1.6 (0.1) 0.000*1.7 (0.1) 0.000*
Constant− 2796.0 (316.5) 0.000*− 3039.0 (288.6) 0.000*− 2658.6 (310.3) 0.000*− 2840.4 (306.2) 0.000*− 2885.86 (314.0) 0.000*− 3074.0 (314.3) 0.000*
  1. Source: author’s calculations. Standard errors are reported in parentheses. * indicates significance at the 95% level