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Table 4 Demographic and socio-economic factors associated with diabetes status

From: Prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism among adults attending an outpatient department at a tertiary referral hospital in Swaziland: a cross-sectional study

VariableNGMbAGMa
Prediabetesp-valueT2DMp-value
Sample, n (%)332 (86.2)25 (6.5) 28 (7.3)c 
Mean age (SD)36.58 (15.01)45.68 (17.35) 44.82 (18.5) 
Age (years) (n, %)  0.001* 0.255
 15–2483 (25.0)4 (6.0) 4 (14.3) 
 25–3498 (29.5)5 (20.0) 5 (17.9) 
 35–4476 (22.9)1 (4.0) 7 (25.0) 
 45–5429 (8.7)6 (24.0) 5 (17.9) 
 55–6421 (6.3)7 (28.0) 3 (10.7) 
 65+25 (7.5)2 (8.0) 4 (14.3) 
Gender (n, %)  0.795 0.001*
 Men177 (53.3)14 (56.0) 6 (21.4) 
 Women155 (46.7)11 (44.0) 22 (78.6) 
Residence (n, %)  0.563 0.717
 Rural165 (50.0)14 (56.0) 13 (46.4) 
 Urban165 (50.0)11 (44.0) 15 (53.6) 
Marital status (n, %)  0.131 0.371
 Not in uniond171 (51.7)9 (36.0) 12 (42.9) 
 In unione160 (48.3)16 (64.0) 16 (57.1) 
Hypertension (n, %)  0.046* 0.710
 Normal127 (38.3)4 (16.0) 11 (38.3) 
 Elevated51 (15.4)3 (12.0) 3 (10.7) 
 Stage 197 (29.2)9 (36.0) 7 (25.0) 
 Stage 257 (17.2)9 (36.0) 7 (25.0) 
Body mass index (n, %) 0.042* 0.052
 Underweight20 (6.0)1 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 
 Normal170 (51.2)6 (24.0) 10 (35.7) 
 Overweight80 (24.1)10 (40.0) 12 (42.9) 
 Obese62 (18.7)8 (32.0) 6 (21.4) 
Waist circumference (n, %) 0.155 0.543
 Normal189 (56.9)19 (76.0) 13 (46.4) 
 Overweight52 (15.7)2 (8.0) 5 (17.9) 
 Obese91 (27.4)4 (16.0) 10 (35.7) 
Waist-to-hip ratio (n, %) 0.025* 0.221
 Normal210 (63.3)22 (88.0) 15 (53.6) 
 Overweight41 (12.3)1 (4.0) 7 (25.0) 
 Obese81 (24.4)2 (8.0) 6 (21.4) 
Education (n, %)  0.154 0.087
 No formal education19 (5.7)4 (16.0) 3 (10.7) 
 Primary78 (23.5)7 (28.0) 11 (39.3) 
 Secondary or higher235 (70.8)14 (56.0) 14 (50.0) 
Occupation (n, %)  0.596 0.069
 Student/unemployed129 (38.9)10 (40.0) 14 (50.0) 
 Self-employed49 (14.8)2 (8.0) 7 (25.0) 
 Salaried job154 (46.4)13 (52.0) 7 (25.0) 
Household income (SDE) (n, %) 0.977 0.065
  < 99987 (26.2)7 (28.0) 13 (46.4) 
 1000–2999147 (44.3)11 (44.0) 8 (28.6) 
  ≥ 300098 (29.5)7 (28.0) 7 (25.0) 
Wealth index (n, %)  0.480 0.003*
 Poorest58 (17.5)6 (24.0) 11 (39.3) 
 Second72 (21.7)2 (8.0) 5 (17.9) 
 Middle64 (19.3)6 (24.0) 0 (0.0) 
 Fourth64 (19.3)5 (20.0) 5 (17.9) 
 Richest74 (22.3)6 (24.0) 7 (25.0) 
  1. aAGM, abnormal glucose metabolism; bNGM, normal glucose metabolism; ccontains 3 (10.7%) previously diagnosed cases; dincludes single, widow, staying with partner;
  2. eincludes married, staying with partner; n, number; *chi-square statistic significant at p < 0.05