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Table 2 Univariable analysis of factors associated with STH and S. mansoni infections among pre-school aged children in Busia County, Kenya

From: Soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis among pre-school age children in a rural setting of Busia County, Western Kenya: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, and associated exposures

FactorsN (%)STH Combined
[OR (95%CI); p-value]
S. mansoni
[OR (95%CI); p-value]
Children
 Enrolled327 (50.1%)1.38 (0.92–2.09); p = 0.1231.09 (0.68–1.75); p = 0.727
 Non-enrolled326 (49.9%)ReferenceReference
Sex
 Male330 (50.1%)ReferenceReference
 Female323 (49.5%)1.49 (0.98–2.25); p = 0.0590.88 (0.55–1.42); p = 0.613
Age group (years)
 3113 (20.6%)ReferenceReference
 4145 (26.5%)1.26 (0.66–2.42); p = 0.4821.38 (0.60–3.12); p = 0.456
 5118 (21.5%)1.08 (0.54–2.16); p = 0.8341.39 (0.59–3.26); p = 0.454
  > 5172 (31.4%)1.35 (0.72–2.52); p = 0.3491.92 (0.89–4.14); p = 0.097
Household members
  ≤ 5314 (48.1%)ReferenceReference
  > 5339 (51.9%)1.32 (0.88–2.00); p = 0.1851.06 (0.66–1.71); p = 0.803
Parent’s education
 No education279 (42.7%)2.93 (0.38–22.54); p = 0.3030.74 (0.20–2.67); p = 0.646
 Primary education294 (45.0%)4.33 (0.57–33.11); p = 0.1580.77 (0.21–2.76); p = 0.686
 Secondary education61 (9.3%)5.36 (0.66–43.79); p = 0.1170.28 (0.05–1.50); p = 0.136
 Post-secondary education19 (2.9%)ReferenceReference
Parent’s occupation
 Farming248 (38.0%)0.45 (0.17–1.22); p = 0.1170.82 (0.23–2.94); p = 0.763
 Small business277 (42.4%)0.63 (0.24–1.66); p = 0.3521.13 (0.32–3.97); p = 0.848
 Fishing72 (11.0%)1.30 (0.46–3.72); p = 0.6201.47 (0.38–5.69); p = 0.580
 Employed25 (3.8%)ReferenceReference
Roof type
 Grass/Makuti170 (26.0%)1.18 (0.75–1.86); p = 0.4750.61 (0.33–1.11); p = 0.107
 Iron sheets481 (73.7%)ReferenceReference
 Tiles2 (0.3%)Insufficient obs6.76 (0.42–109.43); p = 0.179
Floor type
 Mud/Earthen410 (62.8%)0.97 (0.63–1.49); p = 0.8871.01 (0.61–1.65); p = 0.989
 Cemented235 (36.0%)ReferenceReference
 Tiles5 (0.8%)1.22 (0.13–11.19); p = 0.861Insufficient obs
Wall type
 Mud/Earthen449 (68.8%)1.09 (0.69–1.73); p = 0.7171.11 (0.65–1.92); p = 0.697
 Cemented183 (28.0%)ReferenceReference
 Blocks/Bricks20 (3.1%)0.57 (0.12–2.57); p = 0.4621.44 (0.39–5.34); p = 0.587
 Wooden1 (0.2%)Insufficient obsInsufficient obs
Latrine in the compound
 Yes540 (82.7%)ReferenceReference
 No113 (17.3%)1.31 (0.79–2.19); p = 0.2970.77 (0.40–1.52); p = 0.457
Handwashing facility near latrine
 Yes241 (44.6%)ReferenceReference
 No299 (55.4%)1.27 (0.80–2.02); p = 0.3170.64 (0.38–1.07); p = 0.085
Where do you defecate?
 Bush182 (27.9%)1.38 (0.89–2.13); p = 0.1470.77 (0.44–1.34); p = 0.352
 Latrine455 (69.7%)ReferenceReference
Ever been dewormed
 Yes349 (53.5%)ReferenceReference
 No304 (46.6%)1.11 (0.74–1.67); p = 0.6270.90 (0.56–1.45); p = 0.653
Tablets received when last dewormed
 One309 (88.5%)8.63 (1.16–64.16); p = 0.035*0.62 (0.26–1.51); p = 0.293
 More than one40 (11.5%)ReferenceReference
Abdominal pain in the last 2 weeks
 Yes339 (51.9%)1.16 (0.77–1.75); p = 0.4820.89 (0.55–1.43); p = 0.632
 No314 (48.1%)ReferenceReference
Diarrhea in the last 2 weeks
 Yes291 (44.6%)1.22 (0.81–1.84); p = 0.3420.92 (0.57–1.49); p = 0.748
 No362 (55.4%)ReferenceReference
Improved water source for drinking
 Yes275 (42.1%)ReferenceReference
 No378 (38.4%)2.01 (1.29–3.13); p = 0.002*0.76 (0.47–1.23); p = 0.262
Wash fruits before eating
 Yes402 (61.6%)ReferenceReference
 No251 (38.4%)1.45 (0.96–2.19); p = 0.0750.74 (0.45–1.23); p = 0.253
Wear shoes/slippers when out of the house
 Never27 (4.1%)3.42 (1.14–10.29); p = 0.028*1.23 (0.36–4.18); p = 0.738
 Sometimes529 (81.0%)2.14 (1.04–4.40); p = 0.039*0.92 (0.48–1.79); p = 0.813
 Always97 (14.9%)ReferenceReference
Eat soil
 Yes120 (18.4%)1.20 (0.72–1.99); p = 0.4840.55 (0.27–1.15); p = 0.111
 No533 (81.6%)ReferenceReference
Swim in dam/river/lake
 Doesn’t408 (62.5%)ReferenceReference
 Daily128 (19.6%)0.85 (0.48–1.49); p = 0.5662.76 (1.57–4.85); p < 0.001*
 2–3 times a week73 (11.2%)1.96 (1.10–3.49); p = 0.023*2.70 (1.36–5.34); p = 0.004*
 Weekly42 (6.4%)0.86 (0.35–2.13); p = 0.7501.54 (0.57–4.17); p = 0.400
 More than weekly2 (0.3%)Insufficient obsInsufficient obs
  1. *Indicates a significant p-value