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Table 4 Generalized linear mixed effect modelb for associated factors with daytime dysfunction in school life

From: Impact of sleep problems on daytime function in school life: a cross-sectional study involving Japanese university students

  Absence Tardiness Falling asleep during class Interference with academic achievement
Often, sometimes (n = 204) / None(n = 822) Often, sometimes (n = 296) / None(n = 727) Often, sometimes (n = 841) / None(n = 179) Yes (n = 241) / No(n = 751)
Explanatory variables Crude OR (95%CI) aORa (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) aORa (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) aORa (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) aORa (95%CI)
Sex (Female) 0.5 (0.4–0.6)** 0.6 (0.5–0.7)** 0.6 (0.5–0.7)** 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 2.1 (1.8–2.4)** 2.1 (1.7–2.6)** 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.3 (1.0–1.6)*
Class start time (h) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.1 (1.0–1.2)* 1.2 (1.1–1.3)** 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.9 (0.8–0.9)* 0.8 (0.8–0.9)*
Class closing time (h) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.9 (0.9–0.9)* 0.9 (0.8–0.9)** 1.1 (1.0–1.1)* 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.1 (1.1–1.2)** 1.0 (0.9–1.1)
Living alone 1.9 (1.7–2.2)* 1.5 (1.2–1.8)** 2.2 (1.9–2.5)** 1.5 (1.3–1.8)** 0.8 (0.7–0.9)* 1.3 (1.0–1.6)* 1.2 (1.1–1.4)* 1.4 (1.1–1.6)*
Commute time (h) 0.7 (0.6–0.8)** 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.6 (0.6–0.7)** 0.8 (0.7–0.9)* 1.5 (1.3–1.7)** 1.7 (1.4–2.0)** 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 1.3 (1.1–1.5)*
Club activities 0.7 (0.6–0.8)** 0.4 (0.4–0.5)** 1.2 (1.1–1.4)* 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.0 (0.8–1.1) 0.9 (0.8–1.1)
Part-time job 1.7 (1.4–1.9)** 1.9 (1.6–2.2)** 1.8 (1.6–2.1)** 2.1 (1.8–2.5)** 2.4 (2.1–2.8)** 2.2 (1.8–2.5)** 1.4 (1.3–1.7)** 1.3 (1.1–1.5)*
Exercise habit 1.4 (1.2–1.6)** 1.5 (1.3–1.8)** 1.4 (1.2–1.6)** 1.3 (1.1–1.5)* 0.8 (0.7–0.9)** 0.8 (0.7–0.9)* 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.3 (1.1–1.5)*
Alcohol consumption 1.5 (1.3–1.7)** 1.4 (1.1–1.7)* 1.4 (1.2–1.6)** 1.2 (1.0–1.4)* 1.4 (1.2–1.6)** 1.6 (1.3–2.0)** 1.5 (1.3–1.7)** 1.0 (0.8–1.1)
Smoking habit 2.3 (1.8–3.0)** 1.7 (1.2–2.3)* 1.9 (1.5–2.4)** 1.5 (1.1–1.9)* 0.7 (0.5–0.9)* 0.5 (0.4–0.8)** 1.5 (1.1–1.9)* 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Poor health 1.2 (1.0–1.4)* 1.2 (0.9–1.4) 1.4 (1.2–1.6)** 1.6 (1.3–1.8)** 1.2 (1.0–1.4)* 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 2.4 (2.1–2.8)** 1.9 (1.6–2.2)**
Stress 1.2 (1.0–1.3)* 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.3 (1.2–1.5)** 1.3 (1.1–1.5)* 1.2 (1.0–1.4)* 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 2.5 (2.2–2.8)** 1.9 (1.6–2.2)**
Sleep medication 3.6 (1.9–6.6)** 5.0 (2.6–9.7)** 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.8) 1.3 (0.6–3.5) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 1.9 (0.9–3.4) 2.0 (1.0–4.0)*
Insomnia 1.2 (1.0–1.4)* 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.8 (0.7–0.9)* 1.6 (1.3–1.9)** 1.6 (1.4–2.0)** 1.4 (1.2–1.6)** 1.1 (0.9–1.3)
BIISS 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.5 (1.1–2.2)* 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 2.0 (1.4–2.7)* 1.9 (1.3–2.6)**
DSWP 3.5 (2.4–5.1)* 3.4 (2.2–5.1)** 3.5 (2.4–5.0)** 2.7 (1.8–4.1)** 1.8 (1.0–3.4)* 2.6 (1.4–4.8)* 1.9 (1.3–2.8)* 2.6 (1.7–3.9)**
BIISS+DSWP 3.9 (3.0–5.0)* 4.2 (3.2–5.6)** 2.1 (1.6–2.7)** 2.2 (1.6–2.8)** 9.6 (4.6–24.3)* 7.6 (3.3–17.2)** 2.6 (2.0–3.3)** 2.1 (1.6–2.8)**
Random Effects Variance Variance Variance Variance
 University n = 8 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
 Grade n = 4 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2
Observation 5170 (2)
Conditional R2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
  1. BIISS Behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome, DSWP Delayed sleep-wake phase
  2. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidencial interval, aOR Adjusted odds ratio
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.001
  4. aaOR indicated OR adjusted for all other explanatory variables
  5. bMultiple imputation by chained equations with a five-imputation dataset was performed for missing data