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Table 4 Generalized linear mixed effect modelb for associated factors with daytime dysfunction in school life

From: Impact of sleep problems on daytime function in school life: a cross-sectional study involving Japanese university students

 AbsenceTardinessFalling asleep during classInterference with academic achievement
Often, sometimes (n = 204) / None(n = 822)Often, sometimes (n = 296) / None(n = 727)Often, sometimes (n = 841) / None(n = 179)Yes (n = 241) / No(n = 751)
Explanatory variablesCrude OR (95%CI)aORa (95%CI)Crude OR (95%CI)aORa (95%CI)Crude OR (95%CI)aORa (95%CI)Crude OR (95%CI)aORa (95%CI)
Sex (Female)0.5 (0.4–0.6)**0.6 (0.5–0.7)**0.6 (0.5–0.7)**0.9 (0.8–1.1)2.1 (1.8–2.4)**2.1 (1.7–2.6)**1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.3 (1.0–1.6)*
Class start time (h)1.1 (1.0–1.2)1.1 (1.0–1.2)*1.2 (1.1–1.3)**1.1 (0.9–1.2)1.0 (0.9–1.1)1.0 (0.9–1.1)0.9 (0.8–0.9)*0.8 (0.8–0.9)*
Class closing time (h)1.0 (0.9–1.1)1.0 (0.9–1.0)0.9 (0.9–0.9)*0.9 (0.8–0.9)**1.1 (1.0–1.1)*1.0 (0.9–1.1)1.1 (1.1–1.2)**1.0 (0.9–1.1)
Living alone1.9 (1.7–2.2)*1.5 (1.2–1.8)**2.2 (1.9–2.5)**1.5 (1.3–1.8)**0.8 (0.7–0.9)*1.3 (1.0–1.6)*1.2 (1.1–1.4)*1.4 (1.1–1.6)*
Commute time (h)0.7 (0.6–0.8)**0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.6 (0.6–0.7)**0.8 (0.7–0.9)*1.5 (1.3–1.7)**1.7 (1.4–2.0)**1.1 (0.9–1.2)1.3 (1.1–1.5)*
Club activities0.7 (0.6–0.8)**0.4 (0.4–0.5)**1.2 (1.1–1.4)*0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.0 (0.9–1.2)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.0 (0.8–1.1)0.9 (0.8–1.1)
Part-time job1.7 (1.4–1.9)**1.9 (1.6–2.2)**1.8 (1.6–2.1)**2.1 (1.8–2.5)**2.4 (2.1–2.8)**2.2 (1.8–2.5)**1.4 (1.3–1.7)**1.3 (1.1–1.5)*
Exercise habit1.4 (1.2–1.6)**1.5 (1.3–1.8)**1.4 (1.2–1.6)**1.3 (1.1–1.5)*0.8 (0.7–0.9)**0.8 (0.7–0.9)*1.0 (0.9–1.1)1.3 (1.1–1.5)*
Alcohol consumption1.5 (1.3–1.7)**1.4 (1.1–1.7)*1.4 (1.2–1.6)**1.2 (1.0–1.4)*1.4 (1.2–1.6)**1.6 (1.3–2.0)**1.5 (1.3–1.7)**1.0 (0.8–1.1)
Smoking habit2.3 (1.8–3.0)**1.7 (1.2–2.3)*1.9 (1.5–2.4)**1.5 (1.1–1.9)*0.7 (0.5–0.9)*0.5 (0.4–0.8)**1.5 (1.1–1.9)*1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Poor health1.2 (1.0–1.4)*1.2 (0.9–1.4)1.4 (1.2–1.6)**1.6 (1.3–1.8)**1.2 (1.0–1.4)*1.1 (0.9–1.3)2.4 (2.1–2.8)**1.9 (1.6–2.2)**
Stress1.2 (1.0–1.3)*1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.3 (1.2–1.5)**1.3 (1.1–1.5)*1.2 (1.0–1.4)*1.1 (0.9–1.3)2.5 (2.2–2.8)**1.9 (1.6–2.2)**
Sleep medication3.6 (1.9–6.6)**5.0 (2.6–9.7)**0.7 (0.3–1.5)0.8 (0.4–1.8)1.3 (0.6–3.5)1.4 (0.6–3.4)1.9 (0.9–3.4)2.0 (1.0–4.0)*
Insomnia1.2 (1.0–1.4)*1.1 (0.9–1.3)0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.8 (0.7–0.9)*1.6 (1.3–1.9)**1.6 (1.4–2.0)**1.4 (1.2–1.6)**1.1 (0.9–1.3)
BIISS0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.1 (0.7–1.7)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.5 (1.1–2.2)*1.1 (0.7–1.7)0.7 (0.5–1.1)2.0 (1.4–2.7)*1.9 (1.3–2.6)**
DSWP3.5 (2.4–5.1)*3.4 (2.2–5.1)**3.5 (2.4–5.0)**2.7 (1.8–4.1)**1.8 (1.0–3.4)*2.6 (1.4–4.8)*1.9 (1.3–2.8)*2.6 (1.7–3.9)**
BIISS+DSWP3.9 (3.0–5.0)*4.2 (3.2–5.6)**2.1 (1.6–2.7)**2.2 (1.6–2.8)**9.6 (4.6–24.3)*7.6 (3.3–17.2)**2.6 (2.0–3.3)**2.1 (1.6–2.8)**
Random EffectsVarianceVarianceVarianceVariance
 University n = 80.30.20.10.1
 Grade n = 40.10.00.10.2
Observation5170 (2)
Conditional R20.20.20.20.2
  1. BIISS Behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome, DSWP Delayed sleep-wake phase
  2. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidencial interval, aOR Adjusted odds ratio
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.001
  4. aaOR indicated OR adjusted for all other explanatory variables
  5. bMultiple imputation by chained equations with a five-imputation dataset was performed for missing data