Skip to main content

Table 2 Average marginal effects (AMEs) of demographic characteristics and reports of discrimination for predicting foregoing healthcare

From: Discrimination in healthcare as a barrier to care: experiences of socially disadvantaged populations in France from a nationally representative survey

 Model 1Model 2Model 3
AMEs.eAMEs.eAMEs.e
Men (ref)
Women0.023**0.0100.019*0.0100.0110.010
No HC discrim (ref)  
HC discrim  0.222***0.0390.140***0.033
F-statisticF = 59.7***F = 5.59***
N19,20219,20219,202
Mainland France (ref)
Overseas France0.040***0.0150.035**0.0140.023*0.013
North Africa0.036***0.010.028***0.010.0140.015
Sub-Saharan Africa0.025*0.0130.0170.0120.0070.013
Turkey−0.0040.014−0.0110.013−0.0180.016
Southeast Asia− 0.029**0.012− 0.030**0.012− 0.0220.017
Other Asia−0.0180.016−0.0160.016−0.0050.02
Americas−0.0100.024−0.0150.022−0.0010.025
Southern Europe0.0180.0180.0210.0180.0230.019
Other Europe−0.0040.015−0.0030.0150.0050.016
Mixed (1 from FR)0.027*0.0140.027*0.0140.026*0.014
Mixed (no FR)0.044**0.0220.044**0.0220.046**0.022
No HC discrim (ref)  
HC discrim  0.224***0.040.140***0.033
F-statisticF = 59.8***F = 6.75***
N19,20219,20219,202
French-born (ref)
2nd Generation0.039***0.0110.036***0.0110.032***0.011
1st Generation0.0070.0080.0050.0080.0050.009
No HC discrim (ref)  
HC discrim  0.225***0.040.139***0.033
F-statisticF = 60.3***F = 6.85***
N19,20219,20219,202
Christian (ref)
No Religion0.0170.0110.0130.0110.0100.011
Muslim0.034***0.010.025**0.010.0100.016
Jewish−0.041*0.024−0.0400.025−0.044*0.026
Buddhist−0.0400.025−0.0390.025−0.0250.033
Hindu/Sikh0.0340.0460.0310.0460.0130.045
Other Religion0.134*0.0790.1220.0750.0850.067
Refuse/NSP0.0810.0710.0840.0720.0570.064
No HC discrim (ref)  
HC discrim  0.221***0.0390.140***0.033
F-statisticF = 58.5***F = 6.33***
N19,20219,20219,202
  1. Each panel (i.e., gender, origin, migrant generation, religion) is a separate set of nested logistic regression models predicting foregoing healthcare. Model 1 contains only the demographic characteristic of interest as a predictor. Model 2 adds discrimination in healthcare as a predictor, Model 3 then adds other covariates, including demographic characteristics, measures of socioeconomic status, and measures of health status. For conciseness, only the average marginal effects of demographic characteristics of interest and reported discrimination in healthcare are tabulated. HC: healthcare. *:p < .1; **:p < .05; ***:p < .01