Forest plots showing the risk of multimorbidity for quintiles of area deprivation index (ADI) by age groups. Top panel: Odds ratio of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) by age groups; Bottom panel: Odds ratio of severe multimorbidity (≥5 chronic conditions) by age groups. CI, confidence interval. Odds ratios are adjusted for sex, race, ethnicity, and individual level of education. Quintile 1 (0–19%) served as the reference.