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Table 3 Multivariate correlates by type-role category of bullying with uninvolved group as a reference

From: Overlap of traditional bullying and cyberbullying and correlates of bullying among Taiwanese adolescents: a cross-sectional study

VariablesTraditional bullyingCyberbullyingCombined bullying
Victims
(N = 122)
Bullies/bully-victims
(N = 147)
Victims
(N = 136)
Bullies/bully-victims
(N = 65)
Victims
(N = 58)
Bullies/bully-victims
(N = 133)
AOR (95% CI)P-valueAOR (95% CI)P-valueAOR (95% CI)P-valueAOR (95% CI)P-valueAOR (95% CI)P-valueAOR (95% CI)P-value
Gender
 Female1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
 Male1.28 (0.84,1.95)0.2442.80 (2.00,3.91)< 0.0010.83 (0.54,1.30)0.4051.49 (0.90,2.47)0.1150.62 (0.32,1.18)0.1381.79 (1.17,2.73)0.010
Internet addiction
 No addiction1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
 Addiction1.17 (0.84,1.63)0.3251.46 (1.02,2.08)0.0411.15 (0.74,1.78)0.5291.28 (0.78,2.11)0.3192.60 (1.36,4.97)0.0062.61 (1.63,4.20)< 0.001
Alcohol use
 No1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
 Yes0.79 (0.52,1.21)0.2571.88 (1.33,2.64)0.0011.68 (1.13,2.50)0.0121.87 (1.09,3.22)0.0261.47 (0.86,2.50)0.1512.90 (1.98,4.26)< 0.001
Psychological distress
 No serious distress1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
 Yes1.74 (1.16,2.61)0.0091.91 (1.27,2.88)0.0031.98 (1.36,2.87)0.0011.27 (0.74,2.20)0.3681.25 (0.66,2.37)0.4762.08 (1.33,3.24)0.003
Self-harm
 No1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
 Yes1.20 (0.57,2.54)0.6154.01 (2.31,6.94)< 0.0010.98 (0.46,2.09)0.9511.78 (0.60,5.24)0.2823.55 (1.74,7.27)0.0011.24 (0.62,2.49)0.525
Suicidal ideation
 No1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
 Yes2.34 (1.28,4.27)0.0081.32 (0.70,2.49)0.3770.96 (0.46,2.00)0.9130.94 (0.33,2.66)0.9051.46 (0.56,3.83)0.4202.43 (1.41,4.18)0.003
Type of school
 Academic1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
 Vocational1.18 (0.71,1.96)0.5022.43 (1.52,3.90)0.0010.74 (0.43,1.29)0.2771.43 (0.81,2.52)0.2040.68 (0.28,1.67)0.3811.83 (1.10,3.06)0.023
School climate
 Negative1.41 (0.80,2.46)0.2201.55 (1.04,2.29)0.0321.19 (0.80,1.76)0.3841.95 (1.17,3.23)0.0122.69 (1.37,5.27)0.0062.58 (1.68,3.96)< 0.001
 Positive1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 
  1. Notes: AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval