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Table 2 Distribution of individual, familial and school/social factors by type-role categories of bullying

From: Overlap of traditional bullying and cyberbullying and correlates of bullying among Taiwanese adolescents: a cross-sectional study

VariablesTotalTraditional bullyingCyberbullyingCombined bullyingInvolved in any types of bullyingUninvolvedP-valuea
VictimsBullies/bully-victimsVictimsBullies/bully-victimsVictimsBullies/bully-victims
(N = 2028)(N = 122)(N = 147)(N = 136)(N = 65)(N = 58)(N = 133)(N = 661)(N = 1367)
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Individual factors
 Age
  14–161290 (63.6)82 (67.2)105 (71.4)89 (65.4)38 (58.5)34 (58.6)81 (60.9)429 (64.9)861 (63.0)0.446
  17–20731 (36.0)40 (32.8)42 (28.6)46 (33.8)27 (41.5)24 (41.4)52 (39.1)231 (34.9)500 (36.6) 
  Missing7 (0.4)  1 (0.7)   1 (0.2)6 (0.4) 
 Gender 
  Male979 (48.3)61 (50.0)101 (68.7)53 (39.0)37 (56.9)17 (29.3)77 (57.9)346 (52.3)633 (46.3)0.012
  Female1043 (51.4)61 (50.0)45 (30.6)83 (61.0)28 (43.1)41 (70.7)56 (42.1)314 (47.5)729 (53.3) 
  Missing6 (0.3) 1 (0.7)    1 (0.2)5 (0.4) 
 Academic level 
  Above average875 (43.1)49 (40.2)74 (50.3)53 (39.0)26 (40.0)25 (43.1)50 (37.6)277 (41.9)598 (43.7)0.425
  Average or below1152 (56.8)73 (59.8)73 (49.7)83 (61.0)39 (60.0)33 (56.9)83 (62.4)384 (58.1)768 (56.2) 
  Missing1 (0.1)       1 (0.1) 
 Internet usage time per day
   < 3 h1135 (56.0)66 (54.1)79 (53.7)72 (52.9)28 (43.1)34 (58.6)57 (42.9)336 (50.8)799 (58.4)0.001
   ≥ 3 h882 (43.5)55 (45.1)68 (46.3)64 (47.1)37 (56.9)24 (41.4)75 (56.4)323 (48.9)559 (40.9) 
  Missing11 (0.5)1 (0.8)    1 (0.8)2 (0.3)9 (0.7) 
 Internet addiction
  No addiction881 (43.4)51 (41.8)55 (37.4)55 (40.4)27 (41.5)13 (22.4)33 (24.8)234 (35.4)647 (47.3)< 0.001
  Addiction1147 (56.6)71 (58.2)92 (62.6)81 (59.6)38 (58.5)45 (77.6)100 (75.2)427 (64.6)720 (52.7) 
 Smoking (past 30 days)
  No1939 (95.6)117 (95.9)135 (91.8)133 (97.8)59 (90.8)57 (98.3)113 (85.0)614 (92.9)1325 (96.9)< 0.001
  Yes85 (4.2)4 (3.3)12 (8.2)3 (2.2)6 (9.2)0 (0.0)19 (14.3)44 (6.7)41 (3.0) 
  Missing4 (0.2)1 (0.8)   1 (1.7)1 (0.8)3 (0.5)1 (0.1) 
 Alcohol use (past 30 days)
  No1510 (74.5)98 (80.3)92 (62.6)93 (68.4)42 (64.6)41 (70.7)69 (51.9)435 (65.8)1075 (78.6)< 0.001
  Yes513 (25.3)23 (18.9)55 (37.4)43 (31.6)23 (35.4)17 (29.3)64 (48.1)225 (34.0)288 (21.1) 
  Missing5 (0.3)1 (0.8)     1 (0.2)4 (0.3) 
 Self-esteem
  Low (< 15)1504 (74.2)100 (82.0)111 (75.5)103 (75.7)50 (76.9)46 (79.3)101 (75.9)511 (77.3)993 (72.6)0.009
  Moderate to high (≥15)493 (24.3)21 (17.2)30 (20.4)32 (23.5)14 (21.5)10 (17.2)29 (21.8)136 (20.6)357 (26.1) 
  Missing31 (1.5)1 (0.8)6 (4.1)1 (0.7)1 (1.5)2 (3.5)3 (2.3)14 (2.1)17 (1.2) 
 Psychological distress
  No serious distress (< 13)1400 (69.0)73 (59.8)84 (57.1)78 (57.4)44 (67.7)32 (55.2)67 (50.4)378 (57.2)1022 (74.8)< 0.001
  Yes (≥13)628 (31.0)49 (40.2)63 (42.9)58 (42.6)21 (32.3)26 (44.8)66 (49.6)283 (42.8)345 (25.2) 
 Self-harm
  No1895 (93.4)112 (91.8)122 (83.0)128 (94.1)60 (92.3)46 (79.3)120 (90.2)588 (89.0)1307 (95.6)< 0.001
  Yes132 (6.5)10 (8.2)25 (17.0)8 (5.9)5 (7.7)12 (20.7)13 (9.8)73 (11.0)59 (4.3) 
  Missing1 (0.1)       1 (0.1) 
 Suicidal ideation
  No1887 (93.0)106 (86.9)130 (88.4)127 (93.4)61 (93.8)49 (84.5)111 (83.5)584 (88.4)1303 (95.3)< 0.001
  Yes141 (7.0)16 (13.1)17 (11.6)9 (6.6)4 (6.2)9 (15.5)22 (16.5)77 (11.6)64 (4.7) 
Family factors
 Living situation
  Both parents1668 (82.2)99 (81.1)119 (81.0)104 (76.5)49 (75.4)48 (82.8)109 (82.0)528 (79.9)1140 (83.4)0.092
  Single parent310 (15.3)22 (18.0)25 (17.0)27 (19.9)14 (21.5)7 (12.1)17 (12.8)112 (16.9)198 (14.5) 
  With others49 (2.4)1 (0.8)3 (2.0)5 (3.7)2 (3.1)3 (5.2)7 (5.3)21 (3.2)28 (2.1) 
  Missing1 (0.1)       1 (0.1) 
 Parental internet supervision
  No699 (34.5)42 (34.4)51 (34.7)43 (31.6)28 (43.1)15 (25.9)52 (39.1)231 (34.9)468 (34.2)0.785
  Yes1319 (65.0)79 (64.8)96 (65.3)93 (68.4)37 (56.9)43 (74.1)80 (60.2)428 (64.8)891 (65.2) 
  Missing10 (0.5)1 (0.8)    1 (0.8)2 (0.3)8 (0.6) 
 Dinner days with family per week
  0–4 times1078 (53.2)65 (53.3)84 (57.1)78 (57.4)42 (64.6)35 (60.3)91 (68.4)395 (59.8)683 (50.0)< 0.001
  5–7 times938 (46.3)56 (45.9)62 (42.2)58 (42.6)23 (35.4)23 (39.7)40 (30.1)262 (39.6)676 (49.5) 
  Missing12 (0.6)1 (0.8)1 (0.7)   2 (1.5)4 (0.6)8 (0.6) 
School/social factors
 Types of school
  Academic1573 (77.6)94 (77.0)87 (59.2)116 (85.3)47 (72.3)51 (87.9)91 (68.4)486 (73.5)1087 (79.5)0.002
  Vocational455 (22.4)28 (23.0)60 (40.8)20 (14.7)18 (27.7)7 (12.1)42 (31.6)175 (26.5)280 (20.5) 
 School climate
  Positive (> 32)1491 (73.5)85 (69.7)98 (66.7)99 (72.8)41 (63.1)32 (55.2)72 (54.1)427 (64.6)1064 (77.8)< 0.001
  Negative (≤32)537 (26.5)37 (30.3)49 (33.3)37 (27.2)24 (36.9)26 (44.8)61 (45.9)234 (35.4)303 (22.2) 
 Perceived social support
  Low (1–2.9)35 (1.7)4 (3.3)5 (3.4)1 (0.7)1 (1.5)1 (1.7)2 (1.5)14 (2.1)21 (1.5)0.009
  Moderate (3–5)840 (41.4)53 (43.4)64 (43.5)57 (41.9)34 (52.3)32 (55.2)63 (47.4)303 (45.8)537 (39.3) 
  High (5.1–7)1153 (56.9)65 (53.3)78 (53.1)78 (57.4)30 (46.2)25 (43.1)68 (51.1)344 (52.0)809 (59.2) 
  1. The total percentages may differ from 100 due to rounding
  2. aP-values are from the chi-square test between the involved group and the uninvolved group