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Table 5 Multinomial logistic regressions of IPV and VAC, VAC only, and IPV only, compared to no violence dyads

From: Violence against children and intimate partner violence against women: overlap and common contributing factors among caregiver-adolescent dyads

 Female CaregiversMale Caregivers
Odd-ratio (CI)IPV and VAC (n = 124)VAC ‘only’ (n = 90)IPV ‘only’ (n = 46)IPV and VAC (n = 51)VAC ‘only’ (n = 67)IPV ‘only’ (n = 20)
Caregiver Reports
 Age (years)0.96 (0.9–1.01)1.02 (0.97–1.08)0.99 (0.92–1.05)0.96 (0.91–1.02)0.95 (0.91–1)*1(0.95–1.05)
 Education (some secondary or higher vs. primary or no)0.23 (0.09–0.59)**0.52 (0.21–1.26)0.3 (0.09–0.98)*0.87 (0.29–2.61)0.97 (0.37–2.51)0.9 (0.25–3.29)
 Religious statusa1.42 (0.61–3.32)1.21 (0.52–2.86)1.43 (0.53–3.86)1.62 (0.51–5.1)1.7 (0.6–4.85)3.22 (0.86–12.18)¥
 SES0.26 (0.07–1.01)*0.13 (0.03–0.51) **0.31 (0.06–1.55)1.52 (0.23–10.07)3.39 (0.61–18.73)4.44 (0.46–42.52)
 Mental Distress (SRQ)1.12 (1.01–1.22)*1.02 (0.92–1.13)1.07 (0.97–1.2)1.09(0.97–1.23)1.07 (0.96–1.2)1.04 (0.9–1.2)
 Alcohol Use3.03 (0.99–9.3)*2.59 (0.84–8)¥1.82 (0.48–6.96)1.26 (0.95–1.67)¥1.09 (0.83–1.43)1.38 (0.99–1.93)¥
 Intimate Partner Current Living Status (living together vs. not)1.09 (0.37–3.22)0.92 (0.31–2.77)2.39 (0.5–11.36)6.42 (0.46–90.02)4.1 (0.55–30.27)3.97 (0.39–40.04)
 Intimate Partner Relationship Length (years)1.05 (0.99–1.11) ¥1.01 (0.95–1.06)1.04 (0.98–1.12)1.03 (0.97–1.09)1.01 (0.95–1.06)0.94 (0.87–1.01)¥
 Intimate Partner Emotional Attachment0.9 (0.85–0.97)**0.99 (0.93–1.06)0.92 (0.86–1)**0.8 (0.71–0.91)***0.96 (0.86–1.08)0.84 (0.73–0.98)*
 Attitudes against VAC0.95 (0.84–1.07)0.92 (0.82–1.05)0.94 (0.81–1.09)0.86 (0.73–1)*0.94 (0.82–1.07)0.96 (0.79–1.15)
Adolescent Reports
 Age (years)0.95 (0.73–1.25)1.02 (0.77–1.35)0.92 (0.67–1.28)1.27 (0.86–1.88)0.86 (0.61–1.22)1.39 (0.9–2.18)
 Sex of child (girls vs. boys)1.14 (0.58–2.23)1.32 (0.66–2.61)0.76 (0.34–1.65)1.11 (0.45–2.72)0.39 (0.17–0.87)*0.93 (0.31–2.77)
 Mental Distress (SDQ)0.98 (0.92–1.04)1.04 (0.98–1.11)1.02 (0.95–1.09)0.95 (0.87–1.05)0.98 (0.9–1.07)0.95 (0.84–1.06)
 Physical Disability0.97 (0.44–2.18)0.63 (0.26–1.51)1.35 (0.54–3.39)0.63 (0.25–1.52)0.55 (0.24–1.26)0.76 (0.26–2.2)
 Lives with at least one biological parent1.68 (0.79–3.53)1.52 (0.7–3.32)1.84 (0.76–4.48)0.93 (0.34–2.51)1.23 (0.49–3.13)1.75 (0.49–6.23)
 Lives with both biological parents0.99 (0.39–2.51)1.48 (0.59–3.67)1.06 (0.35–3.25)0.9 (0.25–3.22)2.34 (0.8–6.75)3.35 (0.75–14.88)
 Child sense of belonging and safety at home1 (0.86–1.16)0.98 (0.84–1.14)1.06 (0.89–1.27)0.98 (0.79–1.22)1.01 (0.81–1.26)1.28 (0.99–1.67)¥
 Intervention0.63 (0.32–1.23)0.76 (0.38–1.51)0.61 (0.27–1.38)1.4 (0.57–3.42)0.61 (0.27–1.34)1.75 (0.58–5.21)
  1. aMuslim affiliation compared to Christian/Catholic (ref); b Compared to no biological parents; ¥ p < 0.10; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
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