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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of covariates with female caregiver-adolescent dyads

From: Violence against children and intimate partner violence against women: overlap and common contributing factors among caregiver-adolescent dyads

 NoneIPV ‘Only’VAC ‘Only’IPV and VACp
 n = 71n = 46n = 90n = 124 
Caregiver Report
 Age, mean (SD)36.1 (9.7)38.87 (10.37)37.98 (8.05)37.23 (6.48)0.30
Education, % (n)
Primary64.52 (40)90.24 (37)76.19 (64)88.79 (103)< 0.01
High School or more35.48 (22)9.76 (4)23.81 (20)11.21 (13) 
Religion, % (n)
Catholic/Christian81.43 (57)76.09 (35)76.67 (69)79.03 (98)0.87
Muslim18.57 (13)23.91 (11)23.33 (21)20.97 (26) 
 SES, mean (SD)−0.01 (0.24)−0.03 (0.3)−0.1 (0.29)−0.02 (0.27)0.09
 Mental distress (SRQ), mean (SD)4.72 (3.62)6.72 (4.64)5.21 (3.93)7.3 (4.07)0.00
 Alcohol, median (min-max) a0 (0–1)0 (0–2)0 (0–4)0 (0–4)0.07
Partner Living Status, % (n)
Do not live together14.08 (10)4.35 (2)13.33 (12)13.71 (17)0.36
Live together85.92 (61)95.65 (44)86.67 (78)86.29 (107) 
 Intimate Partner Emotional Attachment, mean (SD)14.87 (4.6)17.37 (5.49)15 (5.7)18.56 (6.52)0.00
 Attitudes toward VAC, mean (SD)15.01 (3.1)14.19 (2.62)14.08 (2.74)13.74 (2.89)0.04
Adolescent Report
Sex, % (n)
Female45.07 (32)50 (23)36.67 (33)37.9 (47)0.36
Male54.93 (39)50 (23)63.33 (57)62.1 (77) 
 Children age, mean (SD)13.99 (1.18)13.85 (1.17)13.99 (1.24)13.89 (1.24)0.87
Physical disability, % (n)
No80.28 (57)69.57 (32)85.56 (77)76.61 (95)0.15
Yes19.72 (14)30.43 (14)14.44 (13)23.39 (29) 
Family Structure, % (n)
Lives with bio mother35.71 (25)41.3 (19)40 (36)47.58 (59)0.81
Lives with bio father7.14 (5)6.52 (3)6.67 (6)3.23 (4) 
Lives with both bio parents25.71 (18)19.57 (9)24.44 (22)25 (31) 
Lives with neither bio parent31.43 (22)32.61 (15)28.89 (26)24.19 (30) 
 Mental health difficulties (SDQ), mean (SD)14.3 (5.29)15.39 (6.36)15.32 (5.51)14.35 (5.08)0.42
 Belong, mean (SD)7.23 (2.1)7.48 (2.22)7.21 (2.31)7.27 (2.16)0.92
Study arm, % (n)
Control42.25 (30)52.17 (24)54.44 (49)52.42 (65)0.46
Intervention57.75 (41)47.83 (22)45.56 (41)47.58 (59) 
  1. ANOVA for continuous variables; Chi-square for nominal variables; aKruskall-Wallis for ordinal variables
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