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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of covariates with female caregiver-adolescent dyads

From: Violence against children and intimate partner violence against women: overlap and common contributing factors among caregiver-adolescent dyads

  None IPV ‘Only’ VAC ‘Only’ IPV and VAC p
  n = 71 n = 46 n = 90 n = 124  
Caregiver Report
 Age, mean (SD) 36.1 (9.7) 38.87 (10.37) 37.98 (8.05) 37.23 (6.48) 0.30
Education, % (n)
Primary 64.52 (40) 90.24 (37) 76.19 (64) 88.79 (103) < 0.01
High School or more 35.48 (22) 9.76 (4) 23.81 (20) 11.21 (13)  
Religion, % (n)
Catholic/Christian 81.43 (57) 76.09 (35) 76.67 (69) 79.03 (98) 0.87
Muslim 18.57 (13) 23.91 (11) 23.33 (21) 20.97 (26)  
 SES, mean (SD) −0.01 (0.24) −0.03 (0.3) −0.1 (0.29) −0.02 (0.27) 0.09
 Mental distress (SRQ), mean (SD) 4.72 (3.62) 6.72 (4.64) 5.21 (3.93) 7.3 (4.07) 0.00
 Alcohol, median (min-max) a 0 (0–1) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–4) 0 (0–4) 0.07
Partner Living Status, % (n)
Do not live together 14.08 (10) 4.35 (2) 13.33 (12) 13.71 (17) 0.36
Live together 85.92 (61) 95.65 (44) 86.67 (78) 86.29 (107)  
 Intimate Partner Emotional Attachment, mean (SD) 14.87 (4.6) 17.37 (5.49) 15 (5.7) 18.56 (6.52) 0.00
 Attitudes toward VAC, mean (SD) 15.01 (3.1) 14.19 (2.62) 14.08 (2.74) 13.74 (2.89) 0.04
Adolescent Report
Sex, % (n)
Female 45.07 (32) 50 (23) 36.67 (33) 37.9 (47) 0.36
Male 54.93 (39) 50 (23) 63.33 (57) 62.1 (77)  
 Children age, mean (SD) 13.99 (1.18) 13.85 (1.17) 13.99 (1.24) 13.89 (1.24) 0.87
Physical disability, % (n)
No 80.28 (57) 69.57 (32) 85.56 (77) 76.61 (95) 0.15
Yes 19.72 (14) 30.43 (14) 14.44 (13) 23.39 (29)  
Family Structure, % (n)
Lives with bio mother 35.71 (25) 41.3 (19) 40 (36) 47.58 (59) 0.81
Lives with bio father 7.14 (5) 6.52 (3) 6.67 (6) 3.23 (4)  
Lives with both bio parents 25.71 (18) 19.57 (9) 24.44 (22) 25 (31)  
Lives with neither bio parent 31.43 (22) 32.61 (15) 28.89 (26) 24.19 (30)  
 Mental health difficulties (SDQ), mean (SD) 14.3 (5.29) 15.39 (6.36) 15.32 (5.51) 14.35 (5.08) 0.42
 Belong, mean (SD) 7.23 (2.1) 7.48 (2.22) 7.21 (2.31) 7.27 (2.16) 0.92
Study arm, % (n)
Control 42.25 (30) 52.17 (24) 54.44 (49) 52.42 (65) 0.46
Intervention 57.75 (41) 47.83 (22) 45.56 (41) 47.58 (59)  
  1. ANOVA for continuous variables; Chi-square for nominal variables; aKruskall-Wallis for ordinal variables