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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of covariates with male caregiver-adolescent dyads

From: Violence against children and intimate partner violence against women: overlap and common contributing factors among caregiver-adolescent dyads

  None IPV ‘Only’ VAC ‘Only’ IPV and VAC p
n = 66 n = 20 n = 67 n = 51  
Caregiver Report
 Age, mean (SD) 49.68 (14.42) 45.35 (9.78) 44.22 (11.27) 45.69 (9.62) 0.06
Education, % (n)
Primary 68.75 (44) 66.67 (12) 73.85 (48) 80.39 (41) 0.49
High School or more 31.25 (20) 33.33 (6) 26.15 (17) 19.61 (10)  
Religion, % (n)
Catholic/Christian 84.85 (56) 75 (15) 79.1 (53) 78.43 (40) 0.71
Muslim 15.15 (10) 25 (5) 20.9 (14) 21.57 (11)  
SES, mean (SD) −0.06 (0.24) 0.06 (0.27) 0 (0.22) 0 (0.27) 0.28
Mental distress (SRQ), mean (SD) 3.97 (3.71) 5.45 (4.36) 5.07 (3.73) 6.43 (3.96) 0.01
Alcohol, median (min-max)a 0 (0–5) 0 (0–6) 0 (0–6) 0 (0–6) 0.10
Partner Living Status, % (n)
Do not live together 6.06 (4) 5 (1) 4.48 (3) 1.96 (1) 0.76
Live together 93.94 (62) 95 (19) 95.52 (64) 98.04 (50)  
 Intimate Partner Emotional Attachment, mean (SD) 15.38 (3.17) 14.68 (3.02) 14.66 (3.12) 13.86 (2.41) 0.07
 Attitudes toward VAC, mean (SD) 12 (3.16) 14.25 (3.37) 12.66 (3.78) 15.39 (4.2) 0.00
Adolescent Report
Sex, % (n)
Female 40.91 (27) 50 (10) 61.19 (41) 43.14 (22) 0.09
Male 59.09 (39) 50 (10) 38.81 (26) 56.86 (29)  
 Children age, mean (SD) 14.08 (1.21) 14.5 (1.28) 13.99 (1.24) 14.35 (0.98) 0.18
Physical disability, % (n)
No 75.76 (50) 85 (17) 83.58 (56) 82.35 (42) 0.63
Yes 24.24 (16) 15 (3) 16.42 (11) 17.65 (9)  
Family Structure, % (n)
Lives with bio mother 31.82 (21) 35 (7) 25.37 (17) 31.37 (16) 0.96
Lives with bio father 9.09 (6) 10 (2) 5.97 (4) 7.84 (4)  
Lives with both bio parents 27.27 (18) 25 (5) 38.81 (26) 31.37 (16)  
Lives with neither bio parent 31.82 (21) 30 (6) 29.85 (20) 29.41 (15)  
 Mental health difficulties (SDQ), mean (SD) 14.58 (5.05) 14.91 (5.62) 14.88 (5.18) 14.28 (5.01) 0.711
 Belong, mean (SD) 14.88 (4.8) 13.8 (3.19) 14.28 (4.68) 14.12 (4.87) 0.74
Study arm, % (n)
Control 45.45 (30) 35.00 (7) 62.69 (42) 43.14 (22) 0.07
Intervention 54.55 (36) 65.00 (13) 37.31 (25) 56.86 (29)  
  1. ANOVA for continuous variables; Chi-square for nominal variables; aKruskall-Wallis for ordinal variables