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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of covariates with male caregiver-adolescent dyads

From: Violence against children and intimate partner violence against women: overlap and common contributing factors among caregiver-adolescent dyads

 NoneIPV ‘Only’VAC ‘Only’IPV and VACp
n = 66n = 20n = 67n = 51 
Caregiver Report
 Age, mean (SD)49.68 (14.42)45.35 (9.78)44.22 (11.27)45.69 (9.62)0.06
Education, % (n)
Primary68.75 (44)66.67 (12)73.85 (48)80.39 (41)0.49
High School or more31.25 (20)33.33 (6)26.15 (17)19.61 (10) 
Religion, % (n)
Catholic/Christian84.85 (56)75 (15)79.1 (53)78.43 (40)0.71
Muslim15.15 (10)25 (5)20.9 (14)21.57 (11) 
SES, mean (SD)−0.06 (0.24)0.06 (0.27)0 (0.22)0 (0.27)0.28
Mental distress (SRQ), mean (SD)3.97 (3.71)5.45 (4.36)5.07 (3.73)6.43 (3.96)0.01
Alcohol, median (min-max)a0 (0–5)0 (0–6)0 (0–6)0 (0–6)0.10
Partner Living Status, % (n)
Do not live together6.06 (4)5 (1)4.48 (3)1.96 (1)0.76
Live together93.94 (62)95 (19)95.52 (64)98.04 (50) 
 Intimate Partner Emotional Attachment, mean (SD)15.38 (3.17)14.68 (3.02)14.66 (3.12)13.86 (2.41)0.07
 Attitudes toward VAC, mean (SD)12 (3.16)14.25 (3.37)12.66 (3.78)15.39 (4.2)0.00
Adolescent Report
Sex, % (n)
Female40.91 (27)50 (10)61.19 (41)43.14 (22)0.09
Male59.09 (39)50 (10)38.81 (26)56.86 (29) 
 Children age, mean (SD)14.08 (1.21)14.5 (1.28)13.99 (1.24)14.35 (0.98)0.18
Physical disability, % (n)
No75.76 (50)85 (17)83.58 (56)82.35 (42)0.63
Yes24.24 (16)15 (3)16.42 (11)17.65 (9) 
Family Structure, % (n)
Lives with bio mother31.82 (21)35 (7)25.37 (17)31.37 (16)0.96
Lives with bio father9.09 (6)10 (2)5.97 (4)7.84 (4) 
Lives with both bio parents27.27 (18)25 (5)38.81 (26)31.37 (16) 
Lives with neither bio parent31.82 (21)30 (6)29.85 (20)29.41 (15) 
 Mental health difficulties (SDQ), mean (SD)14.58 (5.05)14.91 (5.62)14.88 (5.18)14.28 (5.01)0.711
 Belong, mean (SD)14.88 (4.8)13.8 (3.19)14.28 (4.68)14.12 (4.87)0.74
Study arm, % (n)
Control45.45 (30)35.00 (7)62.69 (42)43.14 (22)0.07
Intervention54.55 (36)65.00 (13)37.31 (25)56.86 (29) 
  1. ANOVA for continuous variables; Chi-square for nominal variables; aKruskall-Wallis for ordinal variables
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