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Table 1 Diagnostic Accuracy of Meconium Testing

From: The cost-effectiveness of screening tools used in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a modelled analysis

StudyStudy InformationCriteria for Positive ScreenSensitivity (SD)aSpecificity (SD)a
1. Bakhireva et al., 2014 [25]Sample Size = 60
Positive Cases Included = 28
Positive Cases = ≥ 0.21 oz. alcohol/day at enrollment or ≥ 2.0 oz. of alcohol/drinking day.
Controls = No binge drinking in the periconceptional period; ≤ 0.14 oz. alcohol/day in periconceptional period; and no drinking at enrollment.
FAEEs Tested = Ethyl Palmitate, Ethyl Stearate, Ethyl Oleate, Ethyl Linoleate.
Limit of Detection = 50 ng/g
>  600 ng/g all four FAEEs to meconium.100% b (1.9%)13% (5.9%)
2. Ostrea et al., 2006 [26]Sample Size = 124
Positives Cases Included = 93
Positive Cases = Mothers who used alcohol at the time of conception and/or any time during pregnancy.
Controls = Mothers who reported no alcohol intake around the time of conception or in pregnancy.
FAEEs Tested = Ethyl Myristate
Limit of detection = 50 ng/g
>  50 ng/g ethyl myristate to meconium.68% c (4.8%)29% c (8.0%)
3. Bearer et al., 2003 [27]Sample Size = 27
Positives Cases Included = 21
Positive Cases = ≥ 1.0 oz. alcohol/day or ≥ 2 incidents of binge drinking/month in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Controls = Mothers who abstained from drinking during pregnancy.
FAEEs Tested = Ethyl Oleate
Limit of Detection = NA
>  13 ng/g ethyl oleate to meconium.100% b (2.1%)67% (17.8%)
4. Chan et al., 2003 [28]Sample Size = 200
Positive Cases Included = 17
Positive Cases = Mothers who reported any drinking in pregnancy.
Controls = Mothers who reported no drinking in pregnancy.
FAEEs Tested = Ethyl Palmitate, Ethyl Stearate, Ethyl Oleate, Ethyl Linoleate.
Limit of Detection = 50 ng/g
>  600 ng/g all four FAEEs to meconium. c100% b (2.3%)98% (1.0%)
  1. a If SD were not reported, they were calculated using the beta distribution variance formula
  2. b Sensitivity and specificity were assumed to be 99% instead of 100%, as the beta distribution calculates a variance of 0 for mean values of 100%
  3. c Estimates were taken from a systematic review and not reported in the corresponding study