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Table 4 Main sub-categories, categories, and themes (the summarized results)

From: Phenomenology of being a safe taxi driver

Themes Categories Sub-categories Meaning units
Traffic chaos Non-compliance with traffic rules Pedestrians’ unsafe behaviors For example, in the traffic lights, where the pedestrians do not have the right-of-way and the traffic light is green for cars, they ignore and cross the street [P10a34 (IDI)].
Passengers’ unsafe behaviors I was stopping at the red light; suddenly, a passenger opened the door, attempting to get out of the car. At the same time, the motorcycle came/ hit the door, which was opened, and the door fell to the ground. Consequently, l was at fault for that accident and had to pay the fine [P8a51 (IDI)].
Bus drivers’ unsafe behaviors Nowadays, bus drivers do not stop just at bus stops, but wherever they see a passenger, they would stop to pick him/her up. They stop in every single stride to pick up passengers. So, they drive slowly, such that it takes 45 min to pass their shortest route (group consensus) [P12a33 (FGD)].
Unsafe behaviors of other drivers Some drivers change their minds about their destination in the middle of the way and suddenly turn to another direction and cut off others, which may result in an accident. After happening of an accident, he/she even get out of the car and starts swearing, which makes no sense [P3a35 (IDI)].
Inappropriate traffic management Complex traffic environment You know; … you should concentrate on a lot of things simultaneously. On the one side, your passengers, on the other side, motorcycles, bicycles, pedestrians, and other cars [P9a50 (IDI)].
Infrastructures and urban roads We have narrow roads in the city, which have been remained unchanged from 40 or 50 years ago. There are many cars in the city, and most of the people from townships and suburbs are migrating to the city [P7a43 (IDI)].
Law enforcement deficiency For example, yesterday, there was a traffic jam on the back of Koche Meshki (name of an alley). The police officer came, but instead of guiding the traffic flow, he was talking on the phone [P2a47 (IDI)].
Workplace violation Violent interactions in traffic (environment) I have seen several times on the streets that a verbal altercation between drivers results in an accident [P5a35 (IDI)].
Aggressive violation All of a sudden you see a coworker cut you off because of 500 tomans (for picking up passengers) [P11a46 (IDI)]
Social prestige Taxi drivers’ status in the community Social injustice Most of the time, we are the target of insulting comments. It does not matter how we drive [P2a47 (IDI)].
Taxi drivers in the public eye About two weeks ago, my son proposed to a girl, but the girl’s family rejected him because of my job. Even though my son has his job, and he will live independently [P17a56 (FGD)].
Taxi driver’s status in the organization Supportive environment Taxi drivers are a poor stratum of society; no one speaks for them [P3a35 (IDI)].
Deprivation of health insurance The authorities should have come up with a solution …. Without medical insurance, I cannot use medical services even [P5a35 (IDI)].
Economic pressure Occupational expenses Taxi-keeping expenses We cannot afford the necessary maintenance and repair work. We also use our tires until they get entirely flat; these things, in turn, can reduce the safety level of the car [P5a35 (IDI)].
Competition for passengers When a taxi driver (the co-worker) sees a passenger ahead of you, he cut you up in a wrong way [P9a50 (IDI)].
Livelihood concerns Drivers’ income No one puts himself at risk; No one does it. For example, when I drop off a passenger, I have to drive as fast as I can in order to drive the passenger to the destination and pick up the other one immediately. However, if I did not live from hand to mouth, I would never take risks and put myself and the others in danger [P1a34 (IDI)].
Undesirable household economics A thousand things are running through a taxi driver’s mind while working. I do not know what to do with gas, electricity, water bills. What to do for his son’s college tuition? Moreover, sending money to his daughter? They are all worried about finances. If they can keep the wolf from the door, the cab driver will be thankful, drive with more relaxation and mindfulness [P4a49 (IDI)].
Job satisfaction Drivers’ motivation Organizational motivating plans I think it is better to consider a series of incentives for taxi drivers who have not violated the rules and engaged in traffic accidents. By providing more incentive plans by the organizations, the better chance to improve traffic safety will be gained [P6a36 (IDI)].
heavy psychological burden Job interest The worst job, the weakest job in the city, is ours. I apologize to colleagues, but with the humiliating looks of people around, it seems it is the worst occupation in the city [P13a53 (FGD)].
Job stressors From the morning that we start working, we have stress regarding whether we will be able to earn the required income or not [P2a47 (IDI)].