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Table 4 Regression coefficients for SDQ outcomes on rural and urban LBC a

From: Mental health and its influencing factors among left-behind children in South China: a cross-sectional study

 Total difficulties score Prosocial behaviours Emotional symptoms conduct problems hyperactivity-inattention Peer problems
rural urban rural urban rural urban rural urban rural urban rural urban
Age group (ref: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 years)
 3–6 years0.156***   −0.262*** −0.211 0.137***       0.250***      
 7–9 years0.012   −0.085* 0.253* 0.022       0.108**      
 Sex (ref: boys)                −0.074*      
 Only child (ref: yes)    0.102**                  
Monthly income (ref: < 2000 yuan)
 2000–4999 yuan        0.109**             −0.265
 5000 7999 yuan        0.070             − 0.192
 8000–12,000 yuan        0.012             −0.439**
  > 12,000 yuan        0.046             −0.294**
Father’s educational level (ref: primary school or below)
 middle school−0.095 −0.451 0.103* 0.537* −0.127** −0.481   −0.496 −0.116*   −0.125*  
 high school−0.140** −0.592* 0.087 0.516* −0.088 −0.549*   −0.605* −0.143**   −0.107*  
 college or bachelor−0.018 −0.488 −0.027 0.674* −0.065 −0.524   −0.520 −0.031   −0.010  
Mother’s educational level (ref: primary school or below)
 middle school0.085           0.134**   0.079     −1.244***
 high school0.154**           0.163***   0.135**     −1.121***
 college or bachelor−0.023           0.000   −0.019     −0.940**
Age at separation (ref: 0–3 years)
 3–6 years      −0.188                
 6–10 years      −0.283*                
 older than 10 years      0.300*                
Duration of parent absence (ref: half a year)
 less than 1 year−0.017   −0.111* 0.045 −0.016   0.029 0.239 −0.069 −0.061 0.042 0.041
 1–2 years−0.003   −0.112* 0.006 0.051   0.019 0.104 −0.057 −0.121 −0.14 0.232
 2–3 years−0.136**   −0.009 0.015 −0.091   −0.141** −0.011 −0.151*** −0.109 −0.083 0.281*
 more than 3 years−0.237***   −0.063 0.283* −0.205***   −0.212*** −0.050 −0.189*** −0.335** −0.131* −0.137
Communication frequency (ref: everyday)
 1–2 times a week0.129**   −0.074   0.060   0.113** −0.117 0.163***   0.040 0.130
 1–2 times a month0.077   −0.155***   0.008   0.075 0.070 0.081   0.070 0.267*
 1–2 times half a year0.085*   −0.171***   0.049   0.076* −0.300** 0.054   0.088* 0.092
 1–2 times a year0.208***   −0.237***   0.124***   0.202*** 0.147 0.111   0.171*** 0.110
Duration of talk per time (ref: less than 10 min)
 10–20 min−0.039 −0.635***   0.090 0.018   −0.128** −0.729***   −0.712*** 0.002  
20–40 min0.087 −0.385**   0.096 0.110*   −0.028 −0.541***   −0.453** 0.108*  
 one hour0.090* −0.189   0.003 0.101*   0.050 −0.426**   0.343** 0.122**  
 more than one hour0.154*** −0.295*   0.295* 0.188***   0.117** −0.370**   −0.276* 0.125**  
Visit frequency (ref: every weekend)
 every month                0.075      
 1–2 times half a year                0.004      
 1–2 times a year                −0.010      
 less than once a year                0.096*      
Migrant worker (ref: both)
 Father absent0.116***       0.089*   0.078*   0.132***      
 Mother absent0.038       0.028   0.077*   0.058      
  1. Note. Data are standardized regression coefficients. a Data are Beta assessed by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis
  2. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001