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Table 2 Differences adjusted to the score of adherence to the Snack food consumption pattern (Z score). Colombian adults (18-64y) in 2010 and 2015

From: Adherence to a snacking dietary pattern is decreasing in Colombia among the youngest and the wealthiest: results of two representative national surveys

Variable20102015Adjusted differenceb
2015–2010
P
Interaction
naMeanSEP valuenaMeanSEP value
Sex   < 0.0001   < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 Male23030.120.03 4236−0.160.03 − 0.32 (− 0.38, − 0.26) 
 Female2842− 0.060.02 5207− 0.280.02 −0.24 (− 0.28, − 0.19) 
Age (years)   < 0.0001   < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 18–2411240.620.05 18060.140.04 −0.52 (− 0.63, − 0.41) 
 25–3412830.170.03 2262− 0.120.03 −0.31 (− 0.38, − 0.23) 
 35–441150− 0.150.02 1964− 0.310.02 − 0.18 (− 0.25, − 011) 
 45–54962− 0.340.02 1990−0.420.02 −0.11 (− 0.16, − 0.05) 
 55–64626−0.440.02 1421−0.560.02 −0.13 (− 0.18, − 0.07) 
Talla (cm)   < 0.0001   < 0.0001 < 0.0001
  < 150606−0.300.04 1031−0.410.03 −0.09 (− 0.17, − 0.01) 
 150–159.91953− 0.080.02 3478−0.280.02 −0.23 (− 0.28, − 0.18) 
 160–169.917110.060.03 3271−0.200.02 −0.30 (− 0.36, − 0.24) 
 170 +8480.350.05 1591−0.070.03 −0.43 (− 0.53, − 0.33) 
Body mass index   < 0.0001   < 0.0001 < 0.0001
  < 18760.170.13 1360.270.23  
 18–24.924190.140.03 3965−0.160.02 −0.33 (−0.39, − 0.27) 
 25–29.91842−0.090.02 3474−0.290.02 −0.24 (− 0.29, − 0.19) 
 30 +808−0.130.04 1868−0.290.03 −0.21 (− 0.28, − 0.13) 
Marital status   < 0.0001   < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 Married/Living together3140−0.120.02 5663−0.300.02 −0.22 (− 0.26, − 0.18) 
 Unmarried/single20400.210.03 3780−0.120.02 −0.35 (− 0.41, − 0.29) 
Food security   0.003   0.124 < 0.0001
 Food secure19470.080.03 3559−0.230.02 −0.31 (− 0.37, − 026) 
 Mild food insecurity1937−0.010.03 3389−0.250.02 −0.28 (− 0.34, − 0.23) 
 Moderate food insecurity754−0.070.04 1544−0.180.03 −0.17 (− 0.25, − 0.09) 
 Severe food insecurity505−0.050.07 949−0.170.04 −0.17 (− 0.32, − 0.02) 
Wealth index quintile   < 0.0001   < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 1- poorest1399−0.230.03 1575−0.440.02 −0.19 (− 0.26, − 0.13) 
 21196−0.040.04 1774−0.330.03 −0.26 (− 0.35, − 0.18) 
 310530.080.04 1793−0.160.03 −0.24 (− 0.31, − 0.16) 
 48190.060.03 1969−0.170.02 −0.25 (− 0.32, − 0.17) 
 5- wealthiest6780.160.04 2332−0.200.02 −0.36 (− 0.44, − 0.28) 
Ethnicity   0.151   0.066 < 0.0001
 Mestizo40330.020.02 8054−0.230.02 −0.26 (− 0.30, − 0.23) 
 Black/Afro5570.120.05 559−0.420.06 −0.46 (− 0.59, − 0.32) 
 Indigenous486−0.230.04 809−0.140.03 −0.02 (− 0.11, 0.07) 
Education of the head   < 0.0001   0.888 < 0.0001
 Preschool or less360−0.270.04 42−0.010.02 −0.13 (− 0.36, 0.10) 
 Primary2216−0.130.02 6223−0.230.02 −0.15 (− 0.20, − 0.11) 
 Secondary17080.140.03 2551−0.160.02 −0.33 (− 0.40, − 0.27) 
 Post-secondary6800.170.04 566−0.480.02 −0.44 (− 0.54, − 0.33) 
Area   < 0.0001   < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 Urban36430.100.02 7113−0.170.02 −0.28 (− 0.32, − 0.24) 
 Ruralc1502− 0.260.02 2330−0.420.02 −0.18 (− 0.24, − 0.12) 
Region   0.228   0.076 < 0.0001
 Central13630.060.03 2298−0.240.04 −0.29 (− 0.38, − 0.20) 
 Atlantic11330.100.03 2136−0.160.04 −0.31 (− 0.38, − 0.23) 
 Oriental681−0.060.05 1726−0.190.03 −0.16 (− 0.27, − 0.05) 
 Pacific809−0.160.03 1203−0.290.05 −0.14 (− 0.25, − 0.04) 
 Bogotá3280.140.05 663−0.240.00 −0.40 (− 0.49, − 0.30) 
 National territories831−0.140.03 1417−0.390.03 −0.32 (− 0.42, − 0.22) 
  1. aIn 2010 n may be less than 5145 for missing values. In 2015 n may be less than 9443 for missing values.
  2. bAdjusted difference and 95% confidence interval achieved in a linear regression model with the score of adherence (Z score) to the snack pattern as a dependent variable and predictors that include indicator variables for each sociodemographic correlates, year 2015 (2010 as reference) and cross-product (interaction) terms between year and indicator variables of the correlate. In addition, the linear regression model was adjusted by the following covariables; sex, age, marital status, food security, wealth index, ethnicity, education of the head, area and region. The complex sampling survey design was taken into account in all multivariate regression models.
  3. cThe rural category included suburban population centers close to small cities, towns in rural areas distant from small towns, and disperses or very distant from rural towns