Skip to main content

Table 3 Results of a logistic regression model examining the adjusted association between dental caries and acculturation in Hispanic children residing in the United States, adjusting for demographic and social determinants of pediatric oral health (unweighted n = 9143)

From: Acculturation and the oral health of a nationally representative sample of Hispanic children in the United States: an analysis of 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health data

  Odds Ratio (95% CI) p-value Average Predicted Probability (95% CI)
Household Acculturation
 Low Acculturation (Ref)   29.5% (26.2, 32.9%)
 Moderate Acculturation 0.693 (0.47, 1.01) 0.057 23.2% (18.3, 28.1%)
 High Acculturation 0.499 (0.35, 0.70) 0.000 18.3% (14.9, 21.7%)
Age Range: Dentition Status
 1–5: Deciduous Dentition (Ref)   16.6% (13.2, 19.9%)
 6–12: Transitional Dentition 2.39 (1.76, 3.23) 0.000 30.4% (27.4, 33.3%)
 13–17: Permanent Dentition 1.65 (1.154, 2.37) 0.006 23.9% (20.1, 27.8%)
Sex
 Male (Ref)   23.5% (20.9, 26.1%)
 Female 1.19 (0.95, 1.50) 0.126 26.4% (23.7, 29.1%)
Race
 White (Ref)   24.8% (22.4, 27.3%)
 Black 0.93 (0.49, 1.76) 0.819 23.6% (13.7, 33.5%)
 Other 1.021 (0.87, .80) 0.868 25.2% (22.0, 28.3%)
Federal Poverty Level (FPL)
  < =100% FPL (Ref)   25.8% (22.4, 29.1%)
  > 100–150% FPL 1.29 (0.92, 1.82) 0.146 30.3% (25.0, 35.7%)
  > 150–200% FPL 1.19 (0.81, 1.76) 0.371 28.9% (23.0, 34.8%)
  > 200–400% FPL 0.82 (.560, 1.21) 0.317 22.5% (17.8, 27.3%)
  > 400% FPL 0.45 (0.29, 0.71) 0.001 14.3% (10.1, 18.5%)
Parent/Guardian Education Status
 Not High School Graduate (Ref)   25.7% (22.6, 28.8%)
 High School Graduate 0.85 (0.61, 1.18) 0.333 23.1% (19.2, 27.0%)
 Education Beyond High School 0.93 (0.66, 1.31) 0.678 24.5% (20.4, 28.6%)
Neighborhood Maintenance
 No Dilapidated Housing (Ref)   23.8% (21.7, 25.9%)
 Has Dilapidated Housing 1.42 (1.08, 1.90) 0.014 29.9% (25.3, 34.5%)
Health Insurance
 No Insurance (Ref)   28.1% (20.8, 35.4%)
 Insurance 0.810 (0.52, 1.25) 0.343 24.6% (22.6, 26.5%)
Past Year Dental Visit
 No Dental Visit (Ref)   11.0% (8.4, 13.7%)
 Had Dental Visit 3.64 (2.65, 4.98) 0.000 29.0% (26.6, 31.4%)
Household Structure
 2 Biological or Adoptive Parents (Ref)   23.2% (20.9, 25.5%)
 2 Parents and 1 is a Stepparent 1.37 (0.91, 2.05) 0.133 28.4% (21.8, 35.0%)
 Single Mother 1.37 (1.03, 1.83) 0.031 28.5% (24.2, 32.8%)
 Other 1.22 (0.55, 2.71) 0.627 26.5% (13.0, 39.9%)
Number Children in Household (HH)
 1 Child in HH (Ref)   24.0% (19.8, 28.1%)
  > 1 Child in HH 1.07 (0.80, 1.44) 0.630 25.1% (23.0, 27.3%)
Neighbors Help Each Other
 Strongly Agree (Ref)   25.9% (22.6, 29.2%)
 Somewhat Agree 0.93 (0.71, 1.21) 0.578 24.7% (21.8, 27.6%)
 Disagree 0.89 (0.64,1.22) 0.450 23.9% (20.1, 27.3%)
Child with Special Healthcare Needs (CSHN)
 Not CSHN (Ref)   24.1% (22.1, 26.2%)
 CSHN 1.32 (0.96, 1.9) 0.084 28.7% (23.8, 33.7%)
Parent/Guardian Health Status
 All Excellent or Good (Ref)   22.5% (20.3, 24.7%)
  ≥ 1 Fair or Poor 1.65 (1.26, 2.16) 0.000 31.1% (27.0, 35.3%)
  1. Data are from the 2010–2011 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSHS) and include a sample of Hispanic children ages 1 to 17 residing in the United States. All estimates account for NSCH weighting and complex sampling design and thus are nationally representative. The outcome of interest was oral health as measured by the presence of dental caries, and household acculturation was the primary explanatory variable. The average predicted probabilities represent the adjusted probability of having dental caries at each category of the predictor variables. They are based on the average predicted probability of having dental caries conditional on all observations having a given value of the predictor variable, and they are expressed as percentages