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Table 3 Results of a logistic regression model examining the adjusted association between dental caries and acculturation in Hispanic children residing in the United States, adjusting for demographic and social determinants of pediatric oral health (unweighted n = 9143)

From: Acculturation and the oral health of a nationally representative sample of Hispanic children in the United States: an analysis of 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health data

 Odds Ratio (95% CI)p-valueAverage Predicted Probability (95% CI)
Household Acculturation
 Low Acculturation(Ref) 29.5% (26.2, 32.9%)
 Moderate Acculturation0.693 (0.47, 1.01)0.05723.2% (18.3, 28.1%)
 High Acculturation0.499 (0.35, 0.70)0.00018.3% (14.9, 21.7%)
Age Range: Dentition Status
 1–5: Deciduous Dentition(Ref) 16.6% (13.2, 19.9%)
 6–12: Transitional Dentition2.39 (1.76, 3.23)0.00030.4% (27.4, 33.3%)
 13–17: Permanent Dentition1.65 (1.154, 2.37)0.00623.9% (20.1, 27.8%)
Sex
 Male(Ref) 23.5% (20.9, 26.1%)
 Female1.19 (0.95, 1.50)0.12626.4% (23.7, 29.1%)
Race
 White(Ref) 24.8% (22.4, 27.3%)
 Black0.93 (0.49, 1.76)0.81923.6% (13.7, 33.5%)
 Other1.021 (0.87, .80)0.86825.2% (22.0, 28.3%)
Federal Poverty Level (FPL)
  < =100% FPL(Ref) 25.8% (22.4, 29.1%)
  > 100–150% FPL1.29 (0.92, 1.82)0.14630.3% (25.0, 35.7%)
  > 150–200% FPL1.19 (0.81, 1.76)0.37128.9% (23.0, 34.8%)
  > 200–400% FPL0.82 (.560, 1.21)0.31722.5% (17.8, 27.3%)
  > 400% FPL0.45 (0.29, 0.71)0.00114.3% (10.1, 18.5%)
Parent/Guardian Education Status
 Not High School Graduate(Ref) 25.7% (22.6, 28.8%)
 High School Graduate0.85 (0.61, 1.18)0.33323.1% (19.2, 27.0%)
 Education Beyond High School0.93 (0.66, 1.31)0.67824.5% (20.4, 28.6%)
Neighborhood Maintenance
 No Dilapidated Housing(Ref) 23.8% (21.7, 25.9%)
 Has Dilapidated Housing1.42 (1.08, 1.90)0.01429.9% (25.3, 34.5%)
Health Insurance
 No Insurance(Ref) 28.1% (20.8, 35.4%)
 Insurance0.810 (0.52, 1.25)0.34324.6% (22.6, 26.5%)
Past Year Dental Visit
 No Dental Visit(Ref) 11.0% (8.4, 13.7%)
 Had Dental Visit3.64 (2.65, 4.98)0.00029.0% (26.6, 31.4%)
Household Structure
 2 Biological or Adoptive Parents(Ref) 23.2% (20.9, 25.5%)
 2 Parents and 1 is a Stepparent1.37 (0.91, 2.05)0.13328.4% (21.8, 35.0%)
 Single Mother1.37 (1.03, 1.83)0.03128.5% (24.2, 32.8%)
 Other1.22 (0.55, 2.71)0.62726.5% (13.0, 39.9%)
Number Children in Household (HH)
 1 Child in HH(Ref) 24.0% (19.8, 28.1%)
  > 1 Child in HH1.07 (0.80, 1.44)0.63025.1% (23.0, 27.3%)
Neighbors Help Each Other
 Strongly Agree(Ref) 25.9% (22.6, 29.2%)
 Somewhat Agree0.93 (0.71, 1.21)0.57824.7% (21.8, 27.6%)
 Disagree0.89 (0.64,1.22)0.45023.9% (20.1, 27.3%)
Child with Special Healthcare Needs (CSHN)
 Not CSHN(Ref) 24.1% (22.1, 26.2%)
 CSHN1.32 (0.96, 1.9)0.08428.7% (23.8, 33.7%)
Parent/Guardian Health Status
 All Excellent or Good(Ref) 22.5% (20.3, 24.7%)
  ≥ 1 Fair or Poor1.65 (1.26, 2.16)0.00031.1% (27.0, 35.3%)
  1. Data are from the 2010–2011 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSHS) and include a sample of Hispanic children ages 1 to 17 residing in the United States. All estimates account for NSCH weighting and complex sampling design and thus are nationally representative. The outcome of interest was oral health as measured by the presence of dental caries, and household acculturation was the primary explanatory variable. The average predicted probabilities represent the adjusted probability of having dental caries at each category of the predictor variables. They are based on the average predicted probability of having dental caries conditional on all observations having a given value of the predictor variable, and they are expressed as percentages