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Table 2 Effective interventions on work-related outcomes

From: The effectiveness of workplace nutrition and physical activity interventions in improving productivity, work performance and workability: a systematic review

 CharacteristicsInterventionPrimary outcomesSecondary outcomesQuality
EnvironmentalPhysical ActivityBen-Ner, et al. [30]bUSA; RCT; 12 months; N = 409Treadmill deskWork performance (objective & subjective measurement)Physical activity (objective measurement)Unclear Risk of bias
Coffeng, et al. [57]aNetherlands; RCT; N = 412Social& physical environmental interventionWork performance (subjective measurement)N/ALow Risk of bias
Gao, et al. [34]bFinland; Quasi-experimental controlled study; 6 months; N = 45Sit–stand workstationsWorkability (subjective measurement)Occupational sedentary time &musculoskeletal comfort (subjective measurement)Moderate Risk of bias
Multilevel
Organizational, Individual
Physical Activity & NutritionAldana, et al. [43]aUSA; Quasi-experimental controlled study; 24 months; N = 6246WCSD Wellness ProgramAbsenteeism (objective measurement)N/AModerate Risk of bias
Lahiri and Faghri [40]bUSA; NRS; 16 weeks; N = 72Incentivized Behavioral Weight Management ProgramProductivity (subjective measurement)Weight lossModerate Risk of bias
Loeppke, et al. [60]bUSA; NRS; 36 months; N = 543Health enhancement programAbsenteeism
(subjective measurement)
*Significant results only between subgroups
Health risks (subjective measurement)Moderate Risk of bias
Schultz, et al. [50]aUSA; NRS; 36 months; N = 4189Workplace Health Promotion ProgramAbsenteeism (objective measurement)N/AModerate Risk of bias
Physical Activityvon Thiele Schwarz and Hasson [66]aSweden; RCT; 12 months; N = 177Physical Exercise (PE)Workability (subjective measurement)N/AHigh Risk of bias
von Thiele Schwarz, et al. [65]bSweden; quasi-experimental controlled study; 24 months; N = 202Integration programWorkability &Productivity (subjective measurements)Health promotion, Integration, Kaizen, health (self-reported measurements)No Information
Multilevel
Environmental, Individual
Physical ActivityJakobsen, et al. [35]aDenmark; RCT; 10 weeks; N = 200WORK (workplace physical exercise)Workability (subjective measurement)N/ALow Risk of bias
Multilevel
Environmental, Organizational, Individual
Physical Activity & NutritionBertera [44]aUSA; pretest/ posttest controlled study; 20 months; N = 43,888Multicomponent program (with 41 intervention sites)Absenteeism (objective measurement)N/AModerate Risk of bias
Bertera [52]bUSA; pretest/ posttest controlled study; 24 months; N = 14,279Multicomponent programAbsenteeism (subjective measurement)
*Significant results only between subgroups
Behavioral risk factors (subjective measurement)No Information
Braun, et al. [45]aUK; quasi-experimental controlled study; N = 155,543Better Health atWork Award (Silver Award)Absenteeism (objective measurement)N/AModerate Risk of bias
Conrad, et al. [46]aUSA (Michigan); quasi-experimental controlled study; 24 months; N = 1449HRA, screening, counseling& Go to Health intervention programAbsenteeism (objective measurement)N/AModerate Risk of bias
USA (Indiana); quasi-experimental controlled study; 8 years; N = 746“Alive and Well” program& health checkAbsenteeism (objective measurement)N/AModerate Risk of bias
Jones, et al. [47]aUSA; NRS; 36 months; N = 1893LIVE FOR LIFE programAbsenteeism (objective measurement)N/AModerate Risk of bias
Knight, et al. [48]aUSA; NRS; 36 months; N = 4972LIVE FOR LIFE programAbsenteeism (objective measurement)N/ANo Information
  1. a: Effective on primary outcome(s)
  2. b: Effective on primary and secondary outcomes