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Table 2 Effective interventions on work-related outcomes

From: The effectiveness of workplace nutrition and physical activity interventions in improving productivity, work performance and workability: a systematic review

  Characteristics Intervention Primary outcomes Secondary outcomes Quality
Environmental Physical Activity Ben-Ner, et al. [30]b USA; RCT; 12 months; N = 409 Treadmill desk Work performance (objective & subjective measurement) Physical activity (objective measurement) Unclear Risk of bias
Coffeng, et al. [57]a Netherlands; RCT; N = 412 Social& physical environmental intervention Work performance (subjective measurement) N/A Low Risk of bias
Gao, et al. [34]b Finland; Quasi-experimental controlled study; 6 months; N = 45 Sit–stand workstations Workability (subjective measurement) Occupational sedentary time &musculoskeletal comfort (subjective measurement) Moderate Risk of bias
Multilevel
Organizational, Individual
Physical Activity & Nutrition Aldana, et al. [43]a USA; Quasi-experimental controlled study; 24 months; N = 6246 WCSD Wellness Program Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A Moderate Risk of bias
Lahiri and Faghri [40]b USA; NRS; 16 weeks; N = 72 Incentivized Behavioral Weight Management Program Productivity (subjective measurement) Weight loss Moderate Risk of bias
Loeppke, et al. [60]b USA; NRS; 36 months; N = 543 Health enhancement program Absenteeism
(subjective measurement)
*Significant results only between subgroups
Health risks (subjective measurement) Moderate Risk of bias
Schultz, et al. [50]a USA; NRS; 36 months; N = 4189 Workplace Health Promotion Program Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A Moderate Risk of bias
Physical Activity von Thiele Schwarz and Hasson [66]a Sweden; RCT; 12 months; N = 177 Physical Exercise (PE) Workability (subjective measurement) N/A High Risk of bias
von Thiele Schwarz, et al. [65]b Sweden; quasi-experimental controlled study; 24 months; N = 202 Integration program Workability &Productivity (subjective measurements) Health promotion, Integration, Kaizen, health (self-reported measurements) No Information
Multilevel
Environmental, Individual
Physical Activity Jakobsen, et al. [35]a Denmark; RCT; 10 weeks; N = 200 WORK (workplace physical exercise) Workability (subjective measurement) N/A Low Risk of bias
Multilevel
Environmental, Organizational, Individual
Physical Activity & Nutrition Bertera [44]a USA; pretest/ posttest controlled study; 20 months; N = 43,888 Multicomponent program (with 41 intervention sites) Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A Moderate Risk of bias
Bertera [52]b USA; pretest/ posttest controlled study; 24 months; N = 14,279 Multicomponent program Absenteeism (subjective measurement)
*Significant results only between subgroups
Behavioral risk factors (subjective measurement) No Information
Braun, et al. [45]a UK; quasi-experimental controlled study; N = 155,543 Better Health atWork Award (Silver Award) Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A Moderate Risk of bias
Conrad, et al. [46]a USA (Michigan); quasi-experimental controlled study; 24 months; N = 1449 HRA, screening, counseling& Go to Health intervention program Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A Moderate Risk of bias
USA (Indiana); quasi-experimental controlled study; 8 years; N = 746 “Alive and Well” program& health check Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A Moderate Risk of bias
Jones, et al. [47]a USA; NRS; 36 months; N = 1893 LIVE FOR LIFE program Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A Moderate Risk of bias
Knight, et al. [48]a USA; NRS; 36 months; N = 4972 LIVE FOR LIFE program Absenteeism (objective measurement) N/A No Information
  1. a: Effective on primary outcome(s)
  2. b: Effective on primary and secondary outcomes