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Table 8 Change in KAP on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) indicators among a study cohort of school-aged children in two districts of Nepal, March–May 2015 and June 2016

From: Nutritional and health status of children 15 months after integrated school garden, nutrition, and water, sanitation and hygiene interventions: a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Nepal

OutcomesCategoriesBaseline (March–May 2015)End-line (June 2016)Effect of SG- interventiona (95% CI)p-valueEffect of combined intervention (SG + N + WASH)a (95% CI)p-value
Control (n = 313)SG- intervention (n = 172)Combined intervention (SG+) (n = 197)Control (n = 313)SG- intervention (n = 172)Combined intervention (SG+) (n = 172)
Handwashing:
 Before eating 244 (78.3)115 (66.9)146 (74.1)263 (84.0)149 (86.6)191 (96.9)1.50 (0.66–3.41)0.349.36 (1.89–46.2)0.01
 After playing 186 (59.4)90 (52.3)127 (64.5)203 (64.9)125 (72.7)141 (71.6)0.53 (0.21–1.32)0.181.20 (0.41–3.48)0.74
 After defecation 244 (78.0)117 (68.0)152 (77.2)285 (91.0)168 (97.7)195 (99.0)3.57 (0.30–42.1)0.313.03 (0.66–13.9)0.15
Children bringing drinking water from home 35 (11.2)19 (11.0)43 (21.8)135 (43.1)47 (27.3)23 (11.7)0.63 (0.13–3.02)0.560.09 (0.01–0.70)0.02
Dirty water causing:Diarrhoea196 (62.6)104 (60.5)140 (71.1)281 (89.8)163 (94.8)196 (99.5)1.79 (0.64–5.01)0.270.75 (0.31–1.83)0.53
Cholera36 (11.5)45 (26.2)54 (27.4)313 (100.0)172 (100.0)197 (100.0)1.97 (0.82–4.74)0.131.82 (0.70–4.72)0.22
Skin irritation26 (8.3)7 (4.1)14 (7.1)56 (17.2)15 (8.7)6 (3.0)0.22 (0.05–0.99)0.050.73 (0.11–4.94)0.75
Typhus22 (7.0)10 (5.8)9 (4.6)42 (13.4)8 (4.6)12 (6.1)0.22 (0.02–2.42)0.223.03 (0.18–51.0)0.44
Eye irritation2 (0.6)0 (0.0)7 (3.5)22 (7.0)1 (0.6)1 (0.51)0.12 (0.01–6.21)0.290.74 (0.01–1.09)0.90
Worms/parasites28 (8.9)16 (9.3)26 (13.2)52 (16.6)29 (16.9)21 (10.7)0.84 (0.44–1.59)0.590.46 (0.20–1.07)0.07
  1. SG School garden
  2. SG+ School garden, nutrition and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
  3. aOdds ratio from a mixed logistic regression model of the outcome at follow-up, as a function of the outcome at baseline and the two intervention indicators, with random intercepts for the schools and further adjustment for the district, age and sex of the child, and socioeconomic status of caregivers