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Table 7 Water quality parameters at baseline and its change during follow-up across the different study arms in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts, Nepal (March-May 2015 and June 2016)

From: Nutritional and health status of children 15 months after integrated school garden, nutrition, and water, sanitation and hygiene interventions: a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Nepal

CategoryParametersUnitRangeBaseline (March–May, 2015)End-line (June 2016)Effect of SG- intervention (95% CI)p-valueEffect of combined intervention (SG+) (95% CI)p-value
Control n (%)SG- intervention n (%)Combined intervention (SG + N + WASH)
n (%)
Control n (%)SG-intervention n (%)Combined intervention (SG+) n (%)
Linear model (continuous outcome)
Physical characteristicsTurbidityNTU> 57 (3)3 (4)0 (0)46 (20)26 (31)23 (32)0.53 0.58 
2–5223 (97)81 (96)73 (100)184 (80)58 (69)50 (68)(−0.70–1.77)0.4(−0.82–1.99)0.42
pH 6.5–8.5230 (100)84 (100)73 (100)230 (100)84 (100)73 (100)    
Chemical characteristicsFree residual chlorinemg/l0.3–0.50 (0)0 (0)0 (0)42 (18)26 (31)18 (25)0.02 0.01 
0.1–0.2230 (100)84 (100)73 (100)188 (82)58 (69)55 (75)(−0.01–0.06)0.26(−0.03–0.05)0.78
Total residual chlorinemg/l≥0.50 (0)0 (0)0 (0)225 (98)80 (95)73 (100)−0.01 0.02 
0.2–0.49230 (100)84 (100)73 (100)2 (1)0 (0)0 (0)(−0.03–0.04)0.7(−0.02–0.05)0.35
0–0.190 (0)0 (0)0 (0)3 (1)4 (5)0 (0)    
Microbiological characteristicsThermotole-rant coliformsCFU/100 ml0170 (74)68 (81)68 (93)171 (74)59 (70)52 (71)−5.33 −0.99 
1–1037 (16.)10 (12)5 (7)9 (4)13 (15)4 (5)(−34.6–23.9)0.72(−33.2–31.3)0.95
11–10014 (6)4 (5)0 (0)16 (7)4 (5)7 (10)    
> 1009 (4)2 (2)0 (0)34 (15)8 (10)10 (14)    
  1. SG School garden
  2. SG+: School garden, nutrition and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
  3. *Estimated by a mixed linear regression model for the change in the respective outcome variable, with the two intervention indicator variables as main predictors and random intercepts for the schools, further adjusting for the district, age and sex of the child, and socioeconomic status of caregivers