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Table 2 Characteristics of schoolchildren and caregivers in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts, Nepal, at baseline, March-May 2015

From: Nutritional and health status of children 15 months after integrated school garden, nutrition, and water, sanitation and hygiene interventions: a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Nepal

CharacteristicsControlSG-interventionaCombined intervention (SG+)bTotalp-value
[n, (%)][n, (%)][n, (%)]
Children’s demographic characteristics
 Sex
  Female156 (47.3)77 (43.0)106 (53.3)339 (47.9)0.13
  Male174 (52.7)102 (57.0)93 (46.7)369 (52.1) 
 Age groups
  Age group 1 (8–12 years)47 (14.2)29 (16.2)32 (16.1)108 (15.3)0.78
  Age group 2 (13–17 years)283 (85.8)150 (83.8)167 (83.9)600 (84.7) 
Caregivers demographic characteristics
 Caregivers education
  No formal schooling80 (26.6)58 (48.0)72 (51.4)210 (37.4)< 0.01
  Primary education72 (24.0)36 (29.8)36 (25.7)144 (25.6) 
  Secondary education94 (31.2)22 (18.2)27 (19.3)143 (25.4) 
  Higher education55 (18.3)5 (4.1)5 (3.4)65 (11.6) 
 Caregivers ethnicity
  Brahmin28 (9.3)52 (37.1)21 (17.4)101 (18.0)< 0.01
  Chhetri102 (33.9)56 (46.3)52 (37.1)210 (37.4) 
  Newar15 (5.0)14 (11.6)4 (2.9)33 (5.9) 
  Tamang152 (50.5)30 (24.8)31 (22.1)213 (37.9) 
  Janajati4 (1.3)0 (0.0)1 (0.7)5 (0.9) 
 Caregivers occupation
  No occupation21 (7.0)0 (0.0)4 (2.9)25 (4.5)< 0.01
  Farmer235 (78.1)96 (79.3)127 (90.7)458 (81.5) 
  Public service17 (5.7)17 (14.1)5 (3.6)39 (6.9) 
  Business owner28 (9.3)8 (6.6)4 (2.9)40 (7.1) 
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Roof materials
  Corrugated iron roof272 (90.4)59 (48.8)84 (60.0)415 (73.8)< 0.01
  Wood and tiles29 (9.6)62 (51.2)56 (40.0)147 (26.2) 
 Wall materials
  Wood41 (13.6)15 (12.4)10 (7.1)66 (11.7)0.05
  Corrugated iron47 (15.6)12 (9.9)30 (21.4)89 (15.8) 
  Bricks213 (70.8)94 (77.7)100 (71.4)407 (72.4) 
 Floor materials
  Mud270 (89.7)115 (95.0)139 (99.3)524 (93.2)< 0.01
  Cement31 (10.3)6 (5.0)1 (0.7)38 (6.8) 
 Energy for cooking
  Charcoal/wood254 (84.4)96 (79.3)123 (87.9)473 (84.2)0.17
  Electricity47 (15.6)25 (20.7)17 (12.1)89 (15.8) 
 Socioeconomic status
  High28 (9.3)15 (12.4)6 (4.3)49 (8.7)< 0.01
  Middle96 (31.9)62 (51.2)57 (40.7)215 (38.3) 
  Poor177 (58.8)44 (36.4)77 (55.0)298 (53.0) 
 Own agricultural land283 (94.0)112 (92.7)116 (82.9)511 (90.9)< 0.01
 Total production
   ≤ 10%13 (4.3)9 (7.4)22 (15.7)44 (7.8)< 0.01
  10–30%14 (4.7)3 (2.5)3 (2.1)20 (3.6) 
   ≥ 30%274 (91.0)109 (90.1)115 (82.1)498 (88.6) 
Possession of domestic animals283 (94.0)105 (86.8)119 (85.0)507 (90.2)< 0.01
  1. Socioeconomic status was derived from a factor analysis of variables indicating the possession of household assets such as a radio, a television, a mobile phone, a table, a stove, a petrol lamp, a motorbike, a car or truck, a watch, an iron, a bike, a cupboard etc. The score of the first factor was then divided into three categories using the k-means procedure
  2. aSG School garden intervention
  3. bSG+ School garden, nutrition and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions
  4. p-values were obtained by χ2 test